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Table 5 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations of knowledge and perception of CAM and CAM use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) a

From: Factors associated with the use of complementary and alternative therapies among patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Western Jamaica: a cross-sectional study

  Crude
OR (95% CI)
Adjustedb
OR (95% CI)
Age
 18–49 1.77 (0.66–4.76) 3.51 (0.66–18.81)
 50–59 2.60 (1.00–6.74) 3.97 (0.87–18.05)
  ≥ 60 Ref Ref
Number of adults in household
 0 to 1 0.33 (0.10–1.13) 2.92 (0.45–19.17)
 2 to 3 0.27 (0.08–0.86) 0.75 (0.13–4.55)
  ≥ 4 Ref Ref
Medication cost
 No cost/free 0.36 (0.16–0.82) 0.34 (0.09–1.22)
 Have to pay Ref Ref
Side effects from medicine
 Yes 3.21 (1.27–8.14) 1.65 (0.43–6.39)
 No Ref Ref
Received information about CAM
 Yes 3.96 (1.57–9.97) 1.61 (0.37–7.03)
 No Ref Ref
Self-reported of knowledge of CAM
 None/Some 0.16 (0.07–0.41) 0.06 (0.01–0.37)
 Average/Good/Excellent Ref Ref
Discussed CAM with HCP
 Yes 4.93 (1.37–17.70) 4.71 (0.75–29.46)
 No Ref Ref
Perceives that it is acceptable to use prescription medication and CAM simultaneously
 Yes 2.15 (0.88–5.26) 7.19 (1.34–38.52)
 No Ref Ref
Perceives that it is acceptable to stop taking medicine without consulting HCP if experiencing unpleasant side effects
 Yes 2.71 (1.12–6.60) 0.89 (0.20–3.91)
 No Ref Ref
Perceives that CAM is more effective at treating disease than prescription medication
 Yes 1.17 (0.54–2.56) 0.99 (0.40–2.45)
 No Ref Ref
  1. a Estimated using logistic regression
  2. b Adjusted model includes significant variables in bivariate analyses: age, number of adults in household, cost of medication, side effects from medicine, perceives that it is acceptable to discontinue prescription medicine without consulting HCP, previously receiving information about CAM, previously discussing CAM with their HCP, self-reported knowledge of CAM, perceiving that it is acceptable to use prescription medication and CAM simultaneously, and perceives that CAM is more effective at treating disease than prescription;
  3. CAM Complementary and alternative medicine
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