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Table 3 GRADE evidence profile

From: The effectiveness of Baduanjin exercise for hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Certainty assessment No. of patients Effect Certainty
No. of studies Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Publication bias Baduanjin Control Absolute(95% CI)
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as possibly influenced by systolic blood pressure
14 (RCT) Serious risk of bias a Serious inconsistency b Serious indirectness c No serious imprecision Undetected 532 526 MD 8.52 lower (6.40 to 10.65 lower) VERY LOW
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as possibly influenced by diastolic blood pressure
14 (RCT) Serious risk of bias Serious inconsistency Serious indirectness No serious imprecision Undetected 532 526 MD 4.65 lower(2.74 to 6.55 lower) VERY LOW
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as possibly influenced by glucose
3 (RCT) Serious risk of bias Serious inconsistency Serious indirectness Serious imprecision d Suspected e 124 124 MD 0.44 lower (0.21 to 0.67 lower) VERY LOW
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as possibly influenced by serum total triglyceride
3 (RCT) Serious risk of bias No serious inconsistency Serious indirectness Serious imprecision Suspected 124 124 MD 0.35 lower (0.07 to 0.64 lower) VERY LOW
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as possibly influenced by serum total cholesterol
3 (RCT) Serious risk of bias Serious inconsistency Serious indirectness Serious imprecision Suspected 124 124 MD 0.71 lower (0.21 to 1.21 lower) VERY LOW
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as possibly influenced by high density lipoprotein cholesterol
2 (RCT) Serious risk of bias No serious inconsistency Serious indirectness Serious imprecision Suspected 54 54 MD 0.29 Higher (0.09 to 0.48 higher) VERY LOW
  1. CI Confidence interval, MD Mean difference
  2. Explanations
  3. a. Blinding cannot be achieved in participants and investigators
  4. b. High I square
  5. c. Surrogate outcome for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality
  6. d. Recommendation would differ if the upper versus the lower boundary of the CI represented the truth
  7. e. Only few studies and small in size