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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The effectiveness of Baduanjin exercise for hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

ID Year Stage Disease course (years) Male/ Female Age (EG/CG)   Intervention(s) of the EG Intervention(s) of the CG Details of / Outcomes Duration (days) Number of subjects (EG/CG)
EB +  vs.
Pan 2010 I EG:1.50 ± 1.20 CG:1.70 ± 0.80 EG:14/10 CG:13/11 62.10 ± 5.80 61.40 ± 7.10 EB +  Thiazide diuretics, Gastrodia and Uncaria Decoction SBP, DBP, GLU, TG, TC, HDL-C, Insulin 168 24/24
Chen 2012 I, II EG:10 ± 8 CG:11 ± 7 EG:25/15 CG:23/17 59 ± 6 60 ± 5 EB +  Nifedipine extended-release tablets 10-20 mg/time, 2times/d SBP, DBP, Serum hs-CRP 168 40/40
Chen 2013 I EG:9.13 ± 3.69 CG:8.30 ± 4.36 EG:13/14 CG:16/12 70.06 ± 3.51 69.23 ± 3.72 EB +  Anneizhen 5 mg or Norvasc 5 mg or Telmisartan 80 mg, 1 time/d SBP, DBP, Serum NO, Plasma ET-1 84 30/30
Liao 2013 I, II EG:4.80 ± 2.10 CG:3.90 ± 3.10 EG:38/32 CG:36/34 60.50 ± 11.80 62.70 ± 9.50 EB +  Walking 40 min + Amlodipine 5 mg, 1 time/d SBP, DBP, FBG, TC, TG, BMI, HbA1c, Waist, Insulin 180 70/70
Liang 2014 I, II EG:4.30 ± 3.00 CG:4.70 ± 3.20 EG:20/10 CG:18/12 54.80 ± 7.60 55.70 ± 8.80 EB +  NR SDP, DBP, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C 180 30/30
Yang 2014 I, II NR EG:19/16 CG:13/22 60.07 ± 5.84 60.60 ± 7.37 EB +  NR SBP, DBP, SF-36, Heart Rate, Respiration 168 35/35
He 2015 I EG:8.23 ± 3.73 CG:8.51 ± 3.42 EG:22/20 CG:23/19 68.51 ± 2.97 69.24 ± 2.45 EB +  NR SBP, DBP 90 42/42
Chen 2016 I EG:8.12 ± 3.53 CG:8.61 ± 3.32 EG:15/13 CG:14/14 69.98 ± 3.31 70.29 ± 1.77 EB +  NR SBP, DBP 84 28/28
Liang 2016 Isolated systolic hypertension EG:9.3 ± 2.6 CG:11.9 ± 5.8 EG:17/13 CG:16/14 68.1 ± 10.1 70.5 ± 10.2 EB +  Amlodipine 5 mg, 1 time/d (add Valsartan 80 mg, 1time/d, when necessary) SBP, DBP, Self-made quality of life scale 90 30/30
Lin 2017 I NR 62/54 58 ± 7.48   EB +  Amlodipine 5 mg or
Telmisartan 80 mg, 1time/d
SBP, DBP, Heart Rate, NO, ET-1 180 58/58
EB + . vs.
Dong 2016 I 0.42 ± 0.08 34/26 51.40 ± 4.20   EB +  Routine health education DBP, SBP 60 30/30
Yu 2013 I NR NR NR NR EB +  Intensive education per 2 months during the treatment period SBP, DBP, BMI, WHR 360 52/52
Shi 2017 I EG:2.55 ± 1.36 CG:2.67 ± 1.25 EG:19/11 CG1:18/12 42.65 ± 9.85 41.58 ± 9.12 EB +  Low-salt and low-fat diet education SBP, DBP 180 30/30
Li 2019 I EG ≤ 5,23>5,6CG: ≤5,20;>5,7 EG:6/23 CG:6/21 57.41 ± 3.38 55.81 ± 4.09 EB +  Diet education FBG, SBP, DBP, HbA1C 360 30/30
  1. Abbreviations: EG = Experimental Group; CG = Control Group; NR = Not Reported; EB = Eight Brocades = Baduanjin Qigong; I = hypertension of type I; II = hypertension of type II;  = Routine treatment; Health education; SBP = Systolic Blood Pressure; DBP = Diastolic Blood Pressure GLU = Glucose; TG = Serum Total Triglyceride, TC = Serum Total Cholesterol; HDL-C = High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; LDL-C = Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; Anneizhen = Domestic produced amlodipine besylate tablets. NR = Not Reported