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Table 1 Characteristics of the 43 included studies

From: Oral herbal medicine for women with intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Study ID Sample size (T/C) Age (yrs, MD ± SD) Gestational age of onset (wks, MD ± SD) Gestational times Intervention Control Course of treatment Outcome
Comparison 1. Chinese medicine vs. Conventional medicine
 Zhang [31], 2006 48/50 26.7 28–38 Primipara Self prescribed prescription SAMe+Reduced glutathione 7d a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses 4, 6, 11
 Yang [32], 2015 30/30 T:27.2 ± 4.0
C:27.4 ± 3.9
Not reported M/P:11/19
M/P:13/17
Yinzhihuang oral liquid UDCA 21d 2, 5, 9, 12
 Li et al. [33], 2015 60/60 T:30.5
C:28.8
T:32.4
C:33.4
T:1.44
C:1.54
Yinchenhao
Decoction
UDCA+SAMe 30d for Chinese medicine,10 d for medicine 2, 6, 9, 10, 11
 Huang and Liu [34], 2004 35/25 T:34.5 ± 1.9
C:35.1 ± 2.2
T:34.5 ± 1.9
C:35.1 ± 2.2
Primipara Yinchenhao
Decoction
SAMe 21d 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11
 Zhang et al. [35], 2006 31/29 26.8 29–40 Not reported Jiaweiyinchen
Decoction
DXM 7d 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12
Comparison 2. Chinese medicine + Conventional medicine vs. Conventional medicine
 Wang et al. [36], 2016 40/40 T:29 ± 4.1
C:29.5 ± 4.2
Not reported Not reported Yinzhihuang oral liquid+C UDCA+SAMe 7d 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12
 Zhou et al. [37], 2017 30/30 T:26.3 ± 2.4
C:27.6 ± 2.1
Not reported Not reported Yinchailishi Decoction+C UDCA+SAMe 14d 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 12
 Liu et al. [38], 2015 78/78 T:26.5 ± 7.4
C:26.2 ± 7.6
Not reported T:1.4 ± 0.8
C:1.5 ± 0.7
Yinchenlidan Decoction+C SAMe+DXM 14d 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 10
 Wang X et al. [39], 2016 55/55 T:25.1 ± 4.2
C:25.3 ± 3.8
Not reported Not reported Danyu Decoction+C UDCA 14d 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12
 Yu [40], 2017 29/28 T:30.4 ± 3.5
C:31.2 ± 3.6
Not reported Not reported Yinzhijiangdansuan Decoction+C UDCA(+DXM) 7d a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12
 Zhao [41], 2011 60/60 21–38 21–38 Not reported Qingyulidan Decoction+C DXM + SAMe+phenobarbital 7d 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12
 Wang and Lai [42], 2011 35/35 T:24.3 ± 4.5
C:25.3 ± 3.5
T:37.0 ± 2.1
C:36.4 ± 2.6
Not reported Yinchenlidan Decoction+C UDCA 10d 1, 9
 Shen and Tao [43], 2009 30/30 T:25.3 ± 5.3
C:25.8 ± 4.9
T:37.3 ± 3.3
C:36.0 ± 3.6
Not reported Tuihuangguyuan Decoction+C SAMe 10d 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12
 Wen et al. [44], 2014 60/60 T:26.3 ± 2.4
C:26.8 ± 2.2
T:33.2 ± 3.1
C:33.5 ± 3.4
Not reported Self prescribed prescription+C SAMe 14d 1, 12
 Lu [45], 2013 35/24 T:26.3 ± 2.4
C:25.0 ± 2.9
Not reported Not reported Yinchenzhuyedihuang Decoction+C UDCA 12d 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12
 Liu et al. [46], 2013 15/15 26.45013 Not reported Not reported Yinchendanshao Decoction+C SAMe 10d 1, 2, 9, 10
 Tian et al. [47], 2016 39/39 T:25.5 ± 6.2
C:25.7 ± 5.8
Not reported Not reported Kangdanyu Decoction+C Reduced glutathione+UDCA+SAMe+DXM 14d 4, 5, 6, 7, 12
 Ding et al. [48], 2010 94/94 T:26.0 ± 3.8
C:25.5 ± 2.8
Not reported Not reported Qingganhuayu Decoction+C SAMe 14d 1, 5, 6, 12
 Zhang et al. [49], 2014 30/30 T:25.3 ± 2.1
C:26.6 ± 3.0
Not reported 1.44 ± 0.62
1.65 ± 0.81
Qingdanzhiyang Decoction+C SAMe+phenobarbital+DXM 14d 4, 5
 Shan et al. [50], 2016 48/48 T:26.3 ± 4.7
C:24.9 ± 4.3
Not reported Not reported Huashilidan Decoction+C UDCA+SAMe+DXM 20d 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12
 Li et al. [33], 2015 60/60 T:28.40151
C:28.80151
T:34.4 ± 4.4
C:33.4 ± 4.4
T:1.44 ± 4.
C:1.54 ± 4.
Yinchenhao Decoction+C UDCA+SAMe 30d for Chinese medicine,10 d for medicine 2, 6, 9, 10, 11
 Lan et al. [51], 2016 40/40 Not reported Not reported Not reported Yinchenhao Decoction+C UDCA+SAMe 7d a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses 1, 2, 4, 5, 12
 Zhang [52], 2015 40/40 T:26.7 ± 2.1
C:27.0 ± 1.8
Not reported Not reported Yinchenhao Decoction+C SAMe 7d a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses 2, 5, 9, 10, 12
 Yin [53], 2015 30/30 T:26.2 ± 2.9
C:25.9 ± 3.0
Not reported Not reported Bushenqingli Decoction+C UDCA 7d a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12
 Zhang [54], 2008 44/42 26.6 ± 2.8 28–36 Not reported Self prescribed prescription+C DXM + phenobarbital 10d 2, 9
 Chen and Mo [55], 2005 35/35 T:28.5 ± 2.4
C:27.8 ± 2.6
Not reported Not reported Self prescribed prescription+C DXM + VK3 14d 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
 Ma [56], 2010 35/35 T:28.5 ± 2.4
C:27.8 ± 2.6
Not reported Not reported Self prescribed prescription+C UDCA 14d 5, 6, 10, 12
 Zhang et al. [57], 2016 40/41 T:31.4 ± 9.4
C:32.1 ± 10.9
Not reported M/P:9/31
M/P:8/33
Self prescribed prescription+C UDCA+SAMe+DXM 15d 2
 Shu [58], 2018 48/45 T:27.6 ± 3.4
C:27.9 ± 4.0
Not reported M/P: 11/37
M/P:10/35
Qianyinlidan Decoction+C UDCA 7d 2, 9, 10
 Deng [59], 2015 30/30 29.5 Not reported Not reported Yinzhihuang oral liquid+C UDCA 10d 1, 9
 Su et al. [60], 2015 37/37 T:29.4 ± 5.1
C:28.9 ± 4.8
T:33.5 ± 4.1
C:33.1 ± 4.0
M/P: 8/29
M/P:7/30
Lidan Decoction+C UDCA+SAMe+
Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate
14d 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12
 Wang [61], 2014 36/36 Not reported T:32–36
C:32–36
Not reported Kangyudan Decoction+C UDCA 14d 3, 5, 6, 7, 12
 Wang et al. [62], 2018 30/30 T:28 ± 3.12
C:29 ± 4.0
T:34 ± 1.3
C:35 ± 1.5
T:1.57 ± 0.65
C:1.47 ± 0.56
Yinzhihuang granule+C UDCA+SAMe+DXM 14d 4, 12
 Wei [63], 2016 30/30 T:30.5 ± 5.2
C:28.5 ± 6.1
T:31.5 ± 4.3
C:32.3 ± 3.6
Not reported Self prescribed prescription+C UDCA 14d 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12
 Zhang [64], 2017 62/62 T:29.7 ± 3.8
C:28.6 ± 4.5
T:32–37
C:31–38
Not reported Yinzhihuang granule+C UDCA 7d a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses 4, 6, 12
 Zheng [65], 2019 42/42 T:26.9 ± 3.2
C:27.6 ± 3.3
T:33.6 ± 2.3
C:34.2 ± 2.3
M/P:22/20
M/P:24/18
Lidan Decoction+C UDCA+SAMe +phenobarbital 14d 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12
 Gu et al. [66], 2014 47/36 T:27.8 ± 6.2
C:28.2 ± 5.0
T:31.5 ± 2.8
C:31.1 ± 3.1
T:2.2 ± 1.9
C:2.1 ± 2.0
Yinchen Decoction+C UDCA 20d 1, 2, 9, 10, 11
 Mao and He [67], 2014 59/59 T:26.2 ± 1.5
C:25.9 ± 1.4
T:34.8 ± 0.7
T:35.2 ± 0.8
Not reported Qingganlidan Decoction+C UDCA+SAMe 14-21d 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12
 Mao [68], 2016 39/38 T:28.3 ± 2.2
C:28.6 ± 1.9
T:29.9 ± 1.8
C:29.6 ± 2.1
Not reported Yinchenhao Decoction+C UDCA 7d 4, 7, 8, 12
 Zhu and Huang [69], 2008 35/25 T:25.1 ± 2.8
C:23.9 ± 2.3
T:34.5 ± 1.9
C:35.1 ± 2.2
Not reported Yinchenhao Decoction+C UDCA 21d 3, 4, 6, 9, 11
 Liu et al. [70], 2019 60/60 T:25.2 ± 2.1
C:25.4 ± 2.3
T:28.9 ± 2.1
C:29.0 ± 2.2
Not reported Wuling pill+C SAMe 14d 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12
 Wang et al. [71], 2015 20/20 T:27.5 ± 5.1
C:26.7 ± 4.1
T:30.8 ± 1.7
C:31.1 ± 1.8
Not reported Yinchenhao Decoction+C SAMe 21d 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 12
 Du and Li [72], 2014 26/26 T:22–37
C:24–36
T:27–37
C:27–38
M/P: 3/23
M/P:4/22
Yiguanjian Decoction+C UDCA+DXM 7d a course of treatment 4, 6, 7, 12
 Zhang [73], 2005 40/40 T:25.5 ± 2.5
C:24.6 ± 3.1
T:33.8 ± 2
C:34.0 ± 2.2
Not reported Dangguidihuang Decoction+C SAMe 7d a course of treatment, a total of 3 courses 1, 2, 4, 6, 9
  1. M multipara, P Primipara, T Treatment, C Control, MD Mean Difference, SD Standard Deviation, UDCA Ursodesoxycholic acid, SAMe S-adenosylmethionine, DXM Dexamethasone, VK3 Vitamin K3
  2. Outcome:
  3. 1 itching score
  4. 2 serum total bile acid
  5. 3 neonatal deaths
  6. 4 the number of fetal distress
  7. 5 the number of asphyxia neonatorum
  8. 6 number of caesarean section
  9. 7 the number of postpartum hemorrhage
  10. 8 the number of adverse drug reactions
  11. 9 serum alanine aminotransferase
  12. 10 serum aspartate aminotransferase
  13. 11 neonatal birth age
  14. 12 the number of premature births