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Table 3 List of plant species used for traditional treatment of candidiasis in traditional markets of southern Benin

From: Ethnobotanical survey on plants used in the treatment of candidiasis in traditional markets of southern Benin

Voucher Number Scientific names Vernacular names Botanical families Parts of plants used Mode of preparation administration route Fc (%) Cpr (%) IFh (%) IFt (%) Previous References
1 YH 337 / HNB Abutilon mauritianum (Jacq.) Medik. Adansounyi (f,g) Malvaceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
2 YH 358 / HNB Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile Bani (f, y) Leguminosae Fr Dec Oral + Topic 4.59 4.03 100 0  
3 AA 6752 / HNB Acalypha wilkesiana Müll. Arg “Flowa” Euphorbiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 0 100  
4 YH 286 / HNB Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Atakoun (f,g) Zingiberaceae Fr R cend Oral 1.83 1.61 50 50  
5 YH 338 / HNB Afzelia africana Pers. Kpakpatin / Kpakpa Jidé / Kpakpa Gidé (f) Leguminosae Tf Powder Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 50 50  
6 YH 339 / HNB Allium cepa L. Ayoma, Ayomasa, vovo, massa (f, g) Amaryllidaceae Fr Dec Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 100 0  
7 YH 287 / HNB Allium sativum L. Ayo (f, g) Amaryllidaceae Fr Dec; Mac Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 0 100 [55]
8 YH 345 / HNB Amaranthus spinosus L. Handoukpo (f) Amaranthaceae Tf Dec; Mac; Mettre en poudre Oral 2.75 2.42 0 100  
9 YH 340 / HNB Anacardium occidentale L. Akaju (tin), Lakazu (f,g) Anacardiaceae B Dec Oral 3.67 3.23 100 0  
10 YH 341 / HNB Annona muricata L. Nyiglwe, anyiglwe (f); Chap-chap (fr) Annonaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 100 0  
11 YH 342 / HNB Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC) Guill. & Perr. Hlihon, hilihon (f) Combretaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 50 50  
12 YH 343 / HNB Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. Guxotin (t) Moraceae Le Powder Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100  
S
13 YH 395 / HNB Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Bambou (fr) Poaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 9.17 8.06 100 0  
14 YH 400 / HNB Bauhinia reticulata DC. Kpakpa, Klon (f); Kongbo (g) Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100  
15 YH 344 / HNB Blighia sapida K. D. Köening Lisetin (f); Sapindaceae Fr Powder Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100  
16 YH 293 / HNB Bridelia ferruginea Benth. Honsukokwe, Hongla (f, g); Phyllanthaceae B Dec Oral + Topic 15.6 13.71 100 0  
R
17 YH 296 / HNB Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Ajikun, ajikwin (f, g) Leguminosae Tf Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 3.67 3.23 25 75  
18 YH 347 / HNB Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. Orgeuil de Chine (fr); Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral 3.67 3.23 50 50  
19 YH 348 / HNB Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Klwekun (f,g) Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 3.67 3.23 100 0  
20 YH 298 / HNB Carica papaya L. Kpèn (tin) (l’arbre), Jikpèn (le fruit) (f); Caricaceae R Powder Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100  
21 YH 290 / HNB Carissa spinarum L. Ahanzo (f); Apocynaceae R Dec Oral + Topic 6.42 5.65 71 29  
B
22 YH 349 / HNB Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Flawe (f) Apocynaceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 0 100 [31]
23 YH 350 / HNB Ceropegia fusiformis N.E.Br. Zunkuju wewe (f) Apocynaceae R Mac Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
24 YH 303 / HNB Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle Klé, (f) Rutaceae Fr Dec Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 33 67  
25 YH 353 / HNB Clausena anisata (WilId.) Hook.f. ex Benth. Gbozohouin/ Gbosu / Zohwɛn/ Gboma Duwa Zohwɛn (f) Rutaceae Le Dec Oral + Topic 6.42 5.65 86 14  
R
26 YH 354 / HNB Clerodendrum capitatum (WilId.) Schumach. & Thonn. Zoplotin (f); Wèma (f,g) Lamiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 100 0  
27 YH 306 / HNB Cola nitida (Vent.) Sebott & EndI. Gbanja, Goro, Golo Malvaceae Fr Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 0 100  
28 YH 356 / HNB Combretum micranthum G.Don Vrai Kinkéliba (fr); kinikiniba (f) Combretaceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
29 YH 383 / HNB Combretum paniculatum Vent. Dongbo (Dokpo) Combretaceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 0 100  
30 YH 357 / HNB Commiphora africana (A.Rich.) Engl. Liji (man)(f); Burseraceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 0 100  
31 YH 359 / HNB Crateva adansonii DC. Onton zunzen; Wonton Zinzwen (f, g); Sharu wéwé (y) Capparaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 10.09 8.87 64 36  
32 YH 360 / HNB Croton gratissimus Burch. Jelele, jebele (f,g) Euphorbiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 100 0  
33 YH 355 / HNB Croton lobatus L. Alòvi atòn (f) Euphorbiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
34 YH 361 / HNB Curculigo pilosa (Schumach. & Thonn.) Engl. Ayote, ayoglèn, (f) Hypoxidaceae Fr Mac Oral + Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
35 YH 419 / HNB Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. Hunsukusɛ / Hunsikonu (F) Compositae Pe Dec; Pounding; Grilling Oral + Topic 22.94 20.16 100 0  
36 YH 362 / HNB Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Tcha; Ca / Ti (man) (f) Poaceae Le Dec Oral 2.75 2.42 100 0 [56]
37 YH 363 / HNB Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe) Hutch. & Dalziel Zaxaya (f) Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
R
38 YH 310 / HNB Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC. Tèd’avowu, Zɛn’ali (f) Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
39 YH 365 / HNB Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr. Dakpa, dagpa (f); Leguminosae R Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
40 YH 366 / HNB Dialium guineense WiIld. Asònswèn, asiswetin, aswenswen (f, g); Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
41 YH 367 / HNB Dichapetalum madagascariense Poir Gbaglo (f) Dichapetalaceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
42 YH 368 / HNB Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. abadawèn, badawèn (f) Leguminosae Le Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 0 100  
43 YH 346 / HNB Diodella scandens (Sw.) Bacigalupo & E.L.Cabral Sèhoun (f) Rubiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
44 YH 351 / HNB Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Amatluzu, godo (f) Amaranthaceae Pe Dec Oral + Topic 4.59 4.03 100 0  
45 YH 369 / HNB Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase Woko (g); Poaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
46 YH 370 / HNB Ehretia cymosa Thonn. Zozoma (f); myoma (g); Boraginaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 5.5 4.84 100 0  
47 YH 371 / HNB Entada gigas (L.) Fawc & Rendle Gbagbakwin (f); Leguminosae L Powder Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 50 50  
48 YH 372 / HNB Erythrina senegalensis DC. Kpaklesi, pakléwésè (f); Leguminosae B Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
49 YH 373 / HNB Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Eucalyptus rouge, eucalyptus rostré, Myrtaceae Tf Dec Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
50 YH 374 / HNB Euphorbia hirta L. Hundi hundi asu (f) Euphorbiaceae Tf Dec Oral 1.83 1.61 100 0  
51 YH 314 / HNB Flacourtia flavescens Willd Gbohunkaje / Gbowunkajɛ (f); Salicaceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
52 YH 260 / HNB Garcinia kola Heckel Ahowetin (l’arbre), ahowé (la graine) (f, g); arowé (f); Clusiaceae Fr Dec Oral + Topic 3.67 3.23 0 100 [57]
53 YH 352 / HNB Gladiolus dalenii van Geel Baka [petit oignon] Iridaceae Fr Dec Oral + Topic 3.67 3.23 50 50  
54 YH 376 / HNB Gossypium hirsutum L. Avokanfoun tin (f) Malvaceae Tf Dec Topic 2.75 2.42 100 0  
55 YH 418 / HNB Gymnanthemum coloratum (Wild.) H.Rob. & B.Kahn Alomaklu/ Amavive gbémenton (f)/ Gbélé man Compositae Pe Dec Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
56 YH 377 / HNB Heliotropium indicum L. Koklon son, Kokloden; koklosu denpaja (f) Boraginaceae Tf Dec Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
57 YH 420 / HNB Hymenocardia acida Tul. Mlanlanvê man (f); Manlanvi (g) Phyllanthaceae Tf Pounding Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
58 YH 378 / HNB Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Afio, Xweflu, hwéflou (f) Lamiaceae Pe Dec Oral + Topic 19.27 16.94 100 0 [30]
59 YH 421 / HNB Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. Xè, xètin (f), Oxɛ tin Poaceae R Dec Oral + Topic 5.5 4.84 100 0  
Tf
60 YH 411 / HNB Indigofera pulchra Willd. Zounhô (Zuko), adoma (f); Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
61 YH 379 / HNB Jatropha gossypiifolia L. Nyikpotin, gbagidi kpotin (f, g); Euphorbiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 6.42 5.65 29 71  
62 YH 380 / HNB Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn. Jixo cyoma; Tchioma (f) Cucurbitaceae Fr Pounding Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100  
63 YH 381 / HNB Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. Zunzatin (f) / Agawu /Tere (g) Meliaceae B Dec Oral + Topic 20.18 17.74 91 9  
64 YH 382 / HNB Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. Nyablikpo (f); Bignoniaceae Tf Dec; Mac Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 33 67  
65 AA 6749 / HNB Lantana camara L. Hla Ciyayo / Hla Coyo (f) /Zansoukpê man/ Hla Ciyamadidwe (G) Verbenaceae Tf Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 26.61 23.39 90 10  
66 YH 384 / HNB Lawsonia inermis L. Lalitin (f); laritin (g); lali (y, n) Lythraceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
67 AA 6750 / HNB Lippia multiflora Moldenke Agala (f)/ Aklala (g) Verbenaceae Tf Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 22.94 20.16 96 4  
68 YH 385 / HNB Mangifera indica L. Manga, amanga (f) Anacardiaceae B Dec Oral 4.59 4.03 80 20  
R
69 YH 386 / HNB Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. Kpenma sèmèton (f). Myrtaceae Tf Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
70 YH 388 / HNB Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. Godokwe, Godoko (f); Rubiaceae Pe Pounding Oral + Topic 4.59 4.03 100 0  
71 YH 389 / HNB Momordica charantia L. Nyensinken (f) Cucurbitaceae Pe Dec; Mac Oral + Topic 5.5 4.84 83 17  
72 YH 375 / HNB Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels Cirigun (f) Apocynaceae Tf Pounding; Mac Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
73 YH 319 / HNB Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal Sasalikun, sasagbakun (f,g) Annonaceae Fr Dec; Mac; Grilling Oral + Topic 14.68 12.9 75 25  
74 YH 320 / HNB Morinda lucida Benth. Xwensin Rubiaceae R Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
75 YH 390 / HNB Musa × paradisiaca L. Kokwé azo Musaceae Le Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
76 YH 391 / HNB Ocimum americanum L. Kesu kesu, xesu xesu, xisi xisi (f); akohun (g) Lamiaceae Pe Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 17.43 15.32 84 16  
77 YH 325 / HNB Ocimum gratissimum L. Tchao, Ciyayo (f) Lamiaceae Tf Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 22.94 20.16 68 32 [42]
78 YH 392 / HNB Olax subscorpioides Oliv. Mitin, mitun (f); Olacaceae R Dec Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 67 33  
79 YH 393 / HNB Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G Don Ahwatin, afiti (f) Leguminosae B Pounding Oral + Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100 [58]
80 YH 394 / HNB Paullinia pinnata L. Xedulinifen (f, g); Sapindaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 4.59 4.03 100 0  
81 YH 397 / HNB Persicaria senegalensis (Meisn.) Soják Towe (g); Polygonaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 4.59 4.03 100 0  
82 YH 398 / HNB Philenoptera laxiflora (Guill. & Perr.) Roberty, Ahoma; Aho ma (f) Leguminosae Le Pounding Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100  
83 YH 387 / HNB Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. f.) Pic. Serm. Duma (f), Degoma (g). Polypodiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 2.75 2.42 100 0  
84 YH 401 / HNB Piper nigrum L. Lènkun, (f); lènlènkun g) Piperaceae Fr Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 0 100  
85 YH 399 / HNB Pleiocarpa pycnantha (K.Schum.) Stapf Danyè (f); Vonma (g); Apocynaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
86 YH 402 / HNB Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms Atindodokpwe / Atinsudo dokpo (f) Meliaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 5.5 4.84 100 0  
R
87 AA 6753 / HNB Pteleopsis suberosa Engl. & Diels Kulu Kuli (f)/ Klwi-Klwi (f) Combretaceae B Dec Oral + Topic 29.36 25.81 94 6 [26, 59]
88 YH 403 / HNB Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. Gbègbètin (f) Leguminosae B Dec Topic 0.92 0.81 0 100  
89 YH 404 / HNB Rhaphiostylis beninensis (Hook.f. ex Planch.) Planch. ex Benth. Kplakplama (f) Icacinaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
90 YH 405 / HNB Ricinus communis L. Kasu wayi (a) Euphorbiaceae Tf R.cend Oral 1.83 0.81 100 0  
91 YH 261 / HNB Rourea coccinea (Thonn. ex Schumach.) Benth. Nociovijè, (f) Connaraceae R Dec Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
92 YH 406 / HNB Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E. A. Bruce Ko (ma) (f); kodo (g) Rubiaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 4.59 4.03 60 40  
R
93 YH 407 / HNB Schwenckia americana L. Amakwinkwin, zlon (f) Solanaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 8.26 7.26 100 0  
94 YH 364 / HNB Secamone afzelii (Roem. & Schult.) K.Schum Anonsima, zounkoudjou (f); Apocynaceae Fr Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 0 100  
95 YH 408 / HNB Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen. Kpata / Kpɛta (f) Polygalaceae R Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 3.67 3.23 75 25  
96 YH 409 / HNB Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Amasu yovotòn (f); Leguminosae Tf Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 5.5 4.84 67 33  
97 YH 413 / HNB Senna italica Mill. Agoè agoè, agogwè, adwe agwe (f). Leguminosae Tf Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 1.83 1.61 100 0  
98 YH 410 / HNB Senna occidentalis (L.) Link Kinkéliba Leguminosae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
99 YH 396 / HNB Spondias mombin L. Aklokontin/Ahlihon (f) Anacardiaceae R Dec Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
100 YH 412 / HNB Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perr Atinkɛn Gbadota (f) Myrtaceae Fr Dec; Poudre Oral + Topic 7.34 6.45 75 25  
101 YH 414 / HNB Terminalia glaucescens Planch. ex Benth. Alotun; Anagositin (f) Combretaceae R Dec Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
102 YH 415 / HNB Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach. & Thonn.) Taub. Lendja (f); Leguminosae Fr Dec Oral + Topic 4.59 4.03 100 0  
103 YH 416 / HNB Thalia geniculata L. Aflema (f). Marantaceae Tf Dec; Mac Oral 3.67 3.23 75 25  
104 YH 417 / HNB Tribulus terrestris L. Ahwanglon assou (f)/ Kpononmi (Mi). Zygophyllaceae Tf Dec; Pounding Oral + Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
105 AA 6751 / HNB Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. Aylaha / Ayadaxa/ Win Nyaxa, zinwokokwe, wianxa (f)/ Avun Annonaceae R Dec Oral + Topic 9.17 8.06 70 30  
106 YH 333 / HNB Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Kpéjélékun (f); Annonaceae Fr Dec; Mac; Pounding Oral + Topic 19.27 16.94 71 29 [39]
107 YH 334 / HNB Zea mays L. Gbadé (f); Poaceae Tf Dec Oral + Topic 0.92 0.81 100 0  
108 YH 335 / HNB Zingiber officinale Roscoe Dotè (f;g) Zingiberaceae Fr Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
109 YH 422 / HNB Zornia glochidiata DC. Lèkun lèkun (f) Leguminosae R Dec Oral 0.92 0.81 100 0  
B
  1. f: Fon; g: Goun; fr: french B: Bark; Le: Leaves; Tf: Leaf stem; Fr: Fruit; R: Root; Pe: Whole plant; L: Liana; S: Stem; Dec: Decoction; Mac: Mac: Maceration; IFh: Fidelity index for herborists; IFt: Fidelity index for traditional healers; RCend. To make ashes; Fc: Citation frequency