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Table 3 Absolute and relative organ weight of SD rats orally administered with fermented Citrus sunki peel extract for 90 days

From: In vivo and in vitro safety evaluation of fermented Citrus sunki peel extract: acute and 90-day repeated oral toxicity studies with genotoxicity assessment

  Dose of fermented Citrus sunki peel extract (mg/kg)
0 500 1000 2000
Male (n = 10/group)
 Liver (g) 17.1 ± 2.5 15.6 ± 1.5 15.3 ± 1.4 16.1 ± 2.1
  (g%) 2.83 ± 0.12 2.73 ± 0.18 2.737 ± 0.14 2.81 ± 0.18
 Spleen (g) 0.94 ± 0.16 0.84 ± 0.14 0.81 ± 0.09 0.87 ± 0.13
  (g%) 0.16 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.02
 Kidney (R) (g) 2.02 ± 0.19 1.83 ± 0.18 1.85 ± 0.17 1.90 ± 0.14
  (g%) 0.34 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.02 0.33 ± 0.03 0.33 ± 0.03
 Kidney (L) (g) 1.99 ± 0.26 1.79 ± 0.21 1.82 ± 0.16 1.92 ± 0.18
  (g%) 0.33 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.03 0.34 ± 0.02
 Adrenal gl. (R) (g) 0.031 ± 0.004 0.028 ± 0.003 0.029 ± 0.006 0.031 ± 0.006
  (g%) 0.005 ± 0.001 0.005 ± 0.001 0.005 ± 0.001 0.005 ± 0.001
 Adrenal gl. (L) (g) 0.034 ± 0.006 0.029 ± 0.003 0.031 ± 0.005 0.032 ± 0.005
  (g%) 0.006 ± 0.001 0.005 ± 0.001 0.006 ± 0.001 0.006 ± 0.001
 Testis (R) (g) 1.78 ± 0.08 1.62 ± 0.16 1.70 ± 0.18 1.82 ± 0.16
  (g%) 0.30 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.05 0.32 ± 0.05
 Testis (L) (g) 1.80 ± 0.09 1.62 ± 0.14* 1.73 ± 0.20 1.82 ± 0.16
  (g%) 0.30 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.06 0.32 ± 0.05
 Thymus (g) 0.28 ± 0.05 0.30 ± 0.10 0.28 ± 0.06 0.24 ± 0.06
  (g%) 0.047 ± 0.009 0.054 ± 0.018 0.051 ± 0.012 0.041 ± 0.009
 Heart (g) 1.79 ± 0.14 1.62 ± 0.13* 1.56 ± 0.15* 1.69 ± 0.16
  (g%) 0.30 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.02
 Lung (g) 1.70 ± 0.20 1.56 ± 0.05* 1.55 ± 0.09* 1.61 ± 0.09
  (g%) 0.28 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.03
 Brain (g) 2.22 ± 0.14 2.14 ± 0.11 2.11 ± 0.09 2.16 ± 0.14
  (g%) 0.37 ± 0.05 0.38 ± 0.03 0.38 ± 0.04 0.38 ± 0.03
 Pituitary gl. (g) 0.015 ± 0.002 0.015 ± 0.002 0.013 ± 0.001* 0.014 ± 0.001
  (g%) 0.002 ± 0.000 0.003 ± 0.000 0.002 ± 0.000 0.002 ± 0.000
Female (n = 10/group)
 Liver (g) 8.2 ± 1.1 9.1 ± 0.9 8.6 ± 1.9 9.0 ± 1.7
  (g%) 2.74 ± 0.26 2.83 ± 0.14 2.63 ± 0.33 2.88 ± 0.25
 Spleen (g) 0.55 ± 0.05 0.57 ± 0.08 0.57 ± 0.07 0.55 ± 0.10
  (g%) 0.18 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.02
 Kidney (R) (g) 0.91 ± 0.07 0.97 ± 0.06 0.98 ± 0.13 1.00 ± 0.09
  (g%) 0.30 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.03
 Kidney (L) (g) 0.89 ± 0.09 0.97 ± 0.04 0.98 ± 0.12 0.98 ± 0.07*
  (g%) 0.30 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.03
 Adrenal gl. (R) (g) 0.033 ± 0.003 0.037 ± 0.004 0.034 ± 0.008 0.034 ± 0.005
  (g%) 0.011 ± 0.001 0.011 ± 0.001 0.010 ± 0.002 0.011 ± 0.001
 Adrenal gl. (L) (g) 0.037 ± 0.005 0.037 ± 0.004 0.036 ± 0.009 0.037 ± 0.006
  (g%) 0.012 ± 0.002 0.011 ± 0.001 0.011 ± 0.003 0.012 ± 0.001
 Ovary (R) (g) 0.060 ± 0.007 0.113 ± 0.158 0.059 ± 0.010 0.061 ± 0.015
  (g%) 0.020 ± 0.003 0.038 ± 0.058 0.019 ± 0.004 0.020 ± 0.005
 Ovary (L) (g) 0.058 ± 0.009 0.056 ± 0.010 0.058 ± 0.013 0.058 ± 0.009
  (g%) 0.019 ± 0.003 0.018 ± 0.004 0.018 ± 0.005 0.019 ± 0.004
 Thymus (g) 0.25 ± 0.06 0.28 ± 0.05 0.26 ± 0.07 0.29 ± 0.10
  (g%) 0.084 ± 0.018 0.088 ± 0.016 0.083 ± 0.023 0.092 ± 0.023
 Heart (g) 0.94 ± 0.09 1.05 ± 0.10 0.99 ± 0.10 0.97 ± 0.10
  (g%) 0.32 ± 0.03 0.33 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.02
 Lung (g) 1.23 ± 0.06 1.25 ± 0.16 1.26 ± 0.20 1.22 ± 0.08
  (g%) 0.41 ± 0.03 0.39 ± 0.05 0.40 ± 0.08 0.40 ± 0.05
 Brain (g) 1.92 ± 0.07 1.95 ± 0.06 1.95 ± 0.09 1.90 ± 0.06
  (g%) 0.64 ± 0.04 0.61 ± 0.05 0.62 ± 0.08 0.62 ± 0.08
 Pituitary gl. (g) 0.016 ± 0.003 0.017 ± 0.002 0.018 ± 0.003 0.019 ± 0.005
  (g%) 0.005 ± 0.001 0.005 ± 0.001 0.006 ± 0.001 0.006 ± 0.001
  1. *; p < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Dunnett’s test