Skip to main content

Table 2 Serum biochemical parameters of SD rats orally administered with fermented Citrus sunki peel extract for 90 days

From: In vivo and in vitro safety evaluation of fermented Citrus sunki peel extract: acute and 90-day repeated oral toxicity studies with genotoxicity assessment

  Dose of fermented Citrus sunki peel extract (mg/kg)
0 500 1000 2000
Male (n = 10/group)
 BUN (mg/dL) 14.4 ± 1.5 13.5 ± 1.5 13.7 ± 1.4 14.1 ± 2.0
 TC (mg/dL) 72.4 ± 8.6 69.0 ± 13.7 61.9 ± 8.0 61.9 ± 13.1
 TP (g/dL) 6.0 ± 0.4 5.7 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 0.3 6.0 ± 0.2
 Albumin (g/dL) 2.4 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 2.4 ± 0.2
 TB (mg/dL) 0.00 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.04 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00
 ALP (IU/L) 228.9 ± 43.7 208.3 ± 49.5 225.8 ± 61.4 205.7 ± 33.3
 AST (IU/L) 112.5 ± 20.7 97.8 ± 17.7 105.7 ± 22.6 92.9 ± 28.6
 ALT (IU/L) 34.5 ± 7.6 31.7 ± 2.5 33.8 ± 3.1 31.5 ± 7.7
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.56 ± 0.04 0.52 ± 0.05 0.51 ± 0.11 0.58 ± 0.06
 TG (mg/dL) 59.8 ± 13.6 76.9 ± 26.7 85.1 ± 33.5 71.4 ± 29.8
 Glucose (mg/L) 153.1 ± 11.7 178.2 ± 25.7* 154.3 ± 11.9 169.1 ± 25.4
 Potassium (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 0.2 4.8 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.2 4.8 ± 0.3
 Chlorine (mmol/L) 101.4 ± 2.9 102.3 ± 2.6 102.4 ± 1.5 104.2 ± 2.1
 Calcium (mg/dL) 9.8 ± 0.5 9.6 ± 0.4 9.5 ± 0.3 10.0 ± 0.3
 Phosphorus (mg/dL) 7.0 ± 0.4 6.7 ± 0.5 6.6 ± 0.5 7.1 ± 0.7
 Sodium (mmol/L) 138.0 ± 3.1 137.4 ± 2.9 138.5 ± 3.7 140.6 ± 1.8
Female (n = 10/group)
 BUN (mg/dL) 13.2 ± 2.3 15.0 ± 1.9 12.7 ± 1.2 13.6 ± 2.1
 TC (mg/dL) 76.2 ± 8.0 79.6 ± 15.2 72.7 ± 18.5 71.6 ± 18.6
 TP (g/dL) 6.3 ± 0.3 6.3 ± 0.4 6.5 ± 0.5 6.4 ± 0.4
 Albumin (g/dL) 2.8 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.3 2.9 ± 0.3
 TB (mg/dL) 0.04 ± 0.05 0.02 ± 0.04 0.01 ± 0.06 0.00 ± 0.00
 ALP (IU/L) 112.9 ± 20.6 117.4 ± 36.9 107.1 ± 26.1 101.4 ± 23.7
 AST (IU/L) 103.0 ± 23.7 104.1 ± 48.1 90.2 ± 19.6 84.7 ± 14.8
 ALT (IU/L) 49.5 ± 10.6 43.0 ± 16.1 40.5 ± 16.4 35.5 ± 5.2
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.71 ± 0.10 0.62 ± 0.10 0.60 ± 0.22 0.63 ± 0.05
 TG (mg/dL) 50.2 ± 38.7 75.4 ± 40.0 75.0 ± 107.8 50.1 ± 35.9
 Glucose (mg/L) 203.7 ± 22.1 216.4 ± 17.4 212.2 ± 15.5 201.4 ± 24.1
 Potassium (mmol/L) 4.3 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.161 4.4 ± 0.1 4.5 ± 0.2
 Chlorine (mmol/L) 106.0 ± 2.3 105.2 ± 2.1 105.2 ± 2.4 104.5 ± 2.2
 Calcium (mg/dL) 10.5 ± 0.3 10.6 ± 0.2 10.6 ± 0.5 10.5 ± 0.5
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 6.2 ± 0.5 6.3 ± 0.6 6.4 ± 0.6 6.5 ± 0.6
 Sodium (mmol/L) 140.9 ± 1.9 140.5 ± 1.3 140.0 ± 1.7 141.3 ± 1.0
  1. BUN blood urea nitrogen, TC total cholesterol, TP total protein, TB total bilirubin, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, and TG triglycerides
  2. *; p < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Dunnett's test