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Table 2 Major metabolite changes observed in normal: control (C) and cisplatin-induced (CIS) of NRK-52E cells extract, ***p < 0.0001, **p < 0.001, *p < 0.05

From: NMR and LCMS analytical platforms exhibited the nephroprotective effect of Clinacanthus nutans in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in the in vitro condition

No. Metabolite δH ppm (multiplicity) Fold changes Metabolic pathway
1 Acetate 1.90 (s) 0.42** Glycolysis
2 Alanine 1.46 (d, 7.2 Hz) 0.70** Amino acid metabolism
3 Choline 3.18 (s) 4.07*** Lipid metabolism
4 Creatine 3.02 (s) 1.66*** Energy metabolism
5 Ethanol 1.17(t) 0.48** Glycolysis
6 Glutamate 2.14 (m), 2.38 (m) 0.20* Amino acid metabolism
7 Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) 3.22 (s) 0.44** Lipid metabolism
8 Lactate 1.30 (d, 6.7 Hz) 0.42** Glycolysis
9 Lysine 1.54 (m) 1.62*** Amino acid metabolism
10 Phosphocholine 3.20 (s), 3.58 (m), 4.15 (m) 1.33*** Lipid metabolism