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Table 2 The combination index (CI)* values for the Beta vulgaris juice (BVJ) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) mixture on the tested parameters

From: The synergistic hepatoprotective potential of Beta vulgaris juice and 2,3- dimercaptosuccinic acid in lead-intoxicated rats via improving the hepatic oxidative and inflammatory stress

Parameters CI Effect
In vitro antioxidant models
 ABTS (mg/mL) 0.000 ± 0.000 Synergistic
 β-carotene bleaching (mg/mL) 3.764 ± 0.122 Antagonistic
 Ferric reducing power (mg/mL) 0.245 ± 0.026 Synergistic
Liver function parameters
 ALT (U/L) 0.866 ± 0.072 Synergistic
 AST (U/L) 0.545 ± 0.148 Synergistic
 ALP (U/L) 0.626 ± 0.129 Synergistic
 Albumin (mg/dl) 0.893 ± 0.107 Synergistic
 Total protein (g/dl) 1.006 ± 0.062 Additive
Kidney function markers
 Urea (mg/dl) 0.798 ± 0.067 Synergistic
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.725 ± 0.077 Synergistic
Lead concentration
 Blood lead level (μg/dl) 0.037 ± 0.012 Synergistic
 Hepatic lead Level (μg/g tissue) 0.062 ± 0.013 Synergistic
Oxidative stress markers
 Lipid peroxidation (pmol/g tissue) 0.641 ± 0.050 Synergistic
 GSH (mg/g tissue) 0.864 ± 0.019 Synergistic
 TAC (μg BHT Eq/g tissue) 0.969 ± 0.136 Synergistic
 SOD (IU/mg protein) 0.624 ± 0.144 Synergistic
 GPX (IU/mg protein) 0.655 ± 0.099 Synergistic
 Catalase (IU/mg protein) 0.7663 ± 0.162 Synergistic
 GST (IU/mg protein) 1.1262 ± 0.226 Antagonistic
 GST α1 (expression fold) 1.814 ± 0.600 Antagonistic
Inflammatory parameters
 NO (mmol/g tissue) 0.677 ± 0.119 Synergistic
 IL-6 (pg/g tissue) 0.402 ± 0.100 Synergistic
 DNA fragmentation (%) 0.844 ± 0.084 Synergistic
  1. *CI value of < 1 shows synergistic effect; > 1 shows antagonistic effect; = 1 shows additive effect. TAC Total antioxidant capacity, HCA Hydroxycinnamic acid, ABTS 2,2- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, BHT Butylated hydroxytoluene, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALP Alkaline phosphatase, GSH Reduced Glutathione, SOD Superoxide dismutase, GPX Glutathione peroxidase, GST Glutathione S-transferase, NO Nitric oxide, IL-6 Interleukin-6