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Table 1 Surveys collecting information on use and recommendations for self-care interventions in depression or anxiety

From: Self-care for anxiety and depression: a comparison of evidence from Cochrane reviews and practice to inform decision-making and priority-setting

Author year Country Sample size Sample and methods
Surveys describing self-care interventions used for depression or anxiety (n = 20)
Jorm 2004 [23] Australia N = 6618 Postal survey of community sample of adults in Canberra and south-east New South Wales, collecting information on actions taken to cope with depression during the past 6 months.
Olesen 2010 [27] Australia N = 8841 Nationally representative face-to-face survey of Australian adults, collecting information on self-management strategies for a diagnosed affective or anxiety disorder during the past 12 months.
Parker 2007 [24] Australia N = 2692 Online survey of Australian adults who has experienced depression, investigating perceived effectiveness of self-help and other strategies.
Parslow 2004 [26] Australia N = 7485 Postal survey of community sample of adults in the Canberra environs, collecting information on use of CAM to treat symptoms of depression or anxiety.
Proudfoot 2015 [25] Australia N = 465 National online survey of Australian men investigating positive strategies to prevent and manage depression
Holzinger 2012 [28] Austria N = 1205 Telephone survey of Viennese adults assessing help-seeking and treatment recommendations in response to a vignette depicting a case of moderate depression.
Lowe 2006 [29] Germany N = 87 Face-to-face interview of outpatients with depression, investigating attitudes and preferences for self-management to improve mental well-being.
Riedel-Heller 2005 [30] Germany N = 2516 Nationally representative face-to-face interview of adults collecting information on preferred treatment options in response to a vignette representing major depressive disorder
Carta 2014 [31] Italy N = 1200 Telephone survey of Sardinian adults assessing help-seeking and treatment recommendations in response to a vignette depicting a case of depression.
Munizza 2013 [32] Italy N = 1001 Telephone survey of Italian adults assessing beliefs and attitudes regarding depression etiology and treatment.
Shin 2014 [33] Korea N = 1214 Online survey of national sample of adults from the community, patients with sub-threshold or mild depression, and psychiatrists about the use and helpfulness of self-help for depression.
Loureiro 2013 [35] Portugal N = 4938 Supervised written survey of Portuguese young people presented with a vignette depicting depression and asked questions concerning self-help strategies.
Hsu 2009 [36] Taiwan N = 201 Telephone survey of Taiwanese adults recently discharged from psychiatric hospitalization, collecting information on CAM use for depression.
Tsai 2006 [37] Taiwan N = 220 Face-to-face interviews of elderly nursing home residents, investigating self-care strategies to manage depressive symptoms.
Van Grieken 2018 [34, 46] The Netherlands N = 193 Online survey assessing use and perceived helpfulness of self-management strategies in participants recently recovered from an episode of major depression.
Bazargan 2008 [39] USA N = 315 Face-to-face interview regarding frequency and type of CAM use for depression among sample of primarily African American and Hispanic individuals at clinics in Los Angeles, California screening positive for mild to severe depression.
Bystritsky 2012 [40] USA N = 1004 Telephone survey of CAM therapies to help with ‘mood or energy’ among primary care patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and participating in a randomized trial (CALM).
Grzywacz 2002 [42] USA N = 5827 In-person survey of a national sample of older adults (age 65+) collecting information on CAM use to treat mental health.
Kessler 2001 [38] USA N = 266 Telephone survey of nationally representative sample of adults on CAM therapies used for treatment of self-defined ‘anxiety attacks’ or ‘severe depression’ during the previous 12 months.
Musil 2017 [41] USA N = 335 Mailed survey assessing self-management of depression symptoms among Ohio grandmothers with self-identified depression.
Surveys recommending self-care interventions for depression or anxiety (n= 3)
Morgan 2009 [44] Australia N = 97 Delphi survey of international panel of experts and consumers on recommended interventions for sub-threshold depression
Morgan 2016 [43] Australia N = 83 Delphi survey of international panel of experts and consumers on recommended interventions for sub-threshold anxiety
Nordgreen 2011 [45] Norway N = 815 Online survey of Norwegian psychologists, collecting information on self-help strategies recommended to patients with anxiety or depression.