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Table 1 Socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics of the study population and their association with CAM use (n = 244)a

From: Complementary and alternative medicine use among patients with type 2 diabetes living in the United Arab Emirates

Characteristics Overall CAM users CAM non-users p-value+ OR (95%,CI) b
Age (n = 244) 55.8 ± 12.5 56.9 ± 13.3 55.1 ± 12.0 0.29 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Sex (n = 244)
 Male 86 (35.2) 32 (33.3) 54 (36.5)   1
 Female 158 (64.8) 64 (66.7) 94 (63.5) 0.62 1.15 (0.67–1.97)
Nationality (n = 244)
 Emirati 113 (46.3) 43 (44.8) 70 (47.3)   1
 Non-Emirati 131 (53.7) 53 (55.2) 78 (52.7) 0.70 1.11 (0.66–1.85)
Religion (n = 244)
 Muslim 236 (96.7) 94 (97.9) 142 (95.9)   1
 Non-Muslim 8 (3.3) 2 (2.1) 6 (4.1) 0.41 0.50 (0.10–2.55)
Marital Status (n = 244)
 Single 24 (9.8) 7 (7.3) 17 (11.5)   1
 Married 213 (87.3) 88 (91.7) 125 (84.5) 0.25 1.71 (0.68–4.30)
 Widowed or Divorced 7 (2.9) 1 (1.0) 6 (4.1) 0.44 0.41 (0.04–4.01)
Education (n = 244)
 Illiterate/ Primary Education 113 (46.3) 39 (40.6) 74 (50.0)   1
 Secondary Education 99 (40.6) 48 (50.0) 51 (34.5) 0.04 1.79 (1.03–3.10)
 Higher Education 32 (13.1) 9 (9.4) 23 (15.5) 0.50 0.749 (0.31–1.76)
Employment (n = 244)
 Unemployed 152 (62.3) 54 (56.3) 98 (66.2)   1
 Employed 92 (37.7) 42 (43.8) 50 (33.8) 0.12 1.52 (0.90–2.58)
Monthly Income (n = 244)
  ≤ 5000 AED 97 (39.8) 37 (38.5) 60 (40.5)   1
 5000–10,000 AED 107 (43.9) 43 (44.8) 64 (43.2) 0.77 1.09 (0.62–1.91)
  > 10,000 AED 40 (16.4) 16 (16.7) 24 (16.2) 0.84 1.08 (0.51–2.30)
Presence of Health Insurance (n = 244)
 Uninsured 66 (27.0) 18 (18.8) 48 (32.4)   1
 Insured 178 (73.0) 78 (81.3) 100 (67.6) 0.02 2.08 (1.11–3.86)
Diabetes related characteristics
 Duration of T2DM (n = 244)
   ≤ 10 years 93 (38.1) 39 (40.6) 54 (36.5)   1
   ≥ 11 years 151 (61.9) 57 (59.4) 94 (63.5) 0.52 0.84 (0.50–1.42)
 Management of Blood Sugar Level (n = 240)
  Oral Medication 75 (31.3) 29 (30.9) 46 (31.5)   1
  Insulin 44 (18.3) 13 (13.8) 31 (21.2) 0.32 0.67 (0.30–1.48)
  Diet 121 (50.4) 52 (55.3) 69 (47.3) 0.55 1.20 (0.66–2.15)
 HbA1C (n = 70)
  Uncontrolled (≥6.5) 35 (50.0) 19 (57.6) 16 (43.2)   1
  Controlled (< 6.5) 35 (50.0) 14 (42.4) 21 (56.8) 0.23 0.56 (0.22–1.45)
 Family history of diabetes (n = 210)
  No 25 (11.9) 11 (12.9) 14 (11.2)   1
  Yes 185 (88.1) 74 (87.1) 111 (88.8) 0.70 0.85 (0.37–1.97)
 Presence of diabetes complications (n = 243)
  No 117 (48.1) 47 (49.5) 70 (47.3)   1
  Yes 126 (51.9) 48 (50.5) 78 (52.7) 0.74 0.92 (0.55–1.54)
 Adhere to doctor’s recommendations (n = 244)
  No 29 (11.9) 15 (15.6) 14 (9.5)   1
  Yes 215 (88.1) 81 (84.4) 134 (90.5) 0.15 0.56 (0.26–1.23)
  1. CAM refers to Complementary and Alternative Medicine; aExcept for age (continuous variable) which was described as mean ± SD, all variables (categorical variables) were reported as frequencies and proportions; +p-values were derived from independent t test for continuous variables and from Chi square for categorical variables; b OR (95% CI) refers to Odds Ratios and their corresponding Confidence Intervals, OR which were found to be significant at p less than 0.05 were bolded