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Table 4 The PSG data at baseline and after acupuncture treatment in different groups

From: Effectiveness and cerebral responses of multi-points acupuncture for primary insomnia: a preliminary randomized clinical trial and fMRI study

  S-Acu group M-Acu group N-Acu group
Baseline Post-treatment Baseline Post-treatment Baseline Post-treatment
WASO (minutes) 198.58 ± 89.64 179.06 ± 76.58 203.57 ± 73.54 154.84 ± 91.19a 214.24 ± 68.41 228.27 ± 67.80
TST (minutes) 248.05 ± 91.77 288.25 ± 76.51b 247.50 ± 76.03 319.90 ± 92.51a 236.80 ± 72.25 247.56 ± 66.50
SE (%) 55.44 ± 20.39 61.70 ± 16.25 54.79 ± 16.66 67.34 ± 19.33a 52.37 ± 15.53 52.06 ± 14.12
AI 27.12 ± 12.72 21.51 ± 11.01 27.58 ± 10.77 21.16 ± 9.71a 26.77 ± 10.34 22.86 ± 11.57
N1 (minutes) 40.80 ± 30.49 38.41 ± 22.61 36.94 ± 20.67 38.27 ± 24.70 37.49 ± 25.97 35.37 ± 23.34
N2 (minutes) 62.21 ± 49.88 60.64 ± 52.78 60.53 ± 63.38 76.99 ± 68.21 52.45 ± 53.97 58.77 ± 47.42
N3 (minutes) 74.99 ± 48.69 85.64 ± 48.11 66.98 ± 45.07 98.26 ± 47.43a 69.80 ± 36.80 63.08 ± 33.05
R (minutes) 70.05 ± 45.01 103.56 ± 44.18a 83.05 ± 52.23 106.38 ± 44.79b 77.06 ± 41.47 90.34 ± 42.93
  1. aP < 0.01 (compared with baseline); bP < 0.05 (compared with baseline); WASO wake after sleep onset, TST total sleep time, SE sleep efficient, AI arousal index, N1 first stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep, N2 second stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep, N3 third stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep, R sleep stage of rapid eye movement, S-Acu group single acupoint group, M-Acu group multi-acupoints group, N-Acu group non-acupoint group