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Table 3 Odds ratios of correlatives for use of traditional medicine based on multi-level logit regression models

From: Belief in and use of traditional Chinese medicine in Shanghai older adults: a cross-sectional study

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V
Demographics
 Gender (male = 1, female = 0) 0.762*** 0.752*** 0.690*** 0.754*** 0.681***
 Age (range: 50–100) 1.007* 0.998 1.010* 1.012** 1.005
 Residence (urban = 1, rural = 0) 0.712* 0.715* 0.619** 0.763 0.682*
Medical factors
 Hypertension (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.166*    1.138
 Cardiovascular diseases (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.447***    1.446***
 Stroke (yes = 1, no = 0)   0.947    0.991
 Pneumonia/ … / asthma (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.525***    1.559***
 Diabetes (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.156    1.188
 Depression (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.454    1.540
 Cancer (yes = 1, no = 0)   3.643***    3.391***
 Prostatitis (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.712**    1.605**
 Osteoporosis/osteoarthritis (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.300***    1.318**
 Fracture (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.452*    1.398
 Parkinson’s disease (yes = 1, no = 0)   0.560    0.572
 Nervous system disease (yes = 1, no = 0)   1.389    1.446*
Socioeconomics
 Education (primary school or below = 0)      
 Middle school    1.175   1.206
 High/polytechnic school    1.341*   1.382*
 Colleague or above.    1.724***   1.753***
 Monthly income (range: 0–10,000 yuan)    1.022   1.017
 Main occupation (professional/administrative = 0)      
 Clerk/service    0.740*   0.778*
 Physical labor    0.853   0.902
 Other    0.829   0.910
Relational and contextual factors
 Spouse accompany (yes = 1, no = 0)     1.141 1.129
 Number of strong ties to confide     1.049*** 1.044***
 Knowing medical staff (yes = 1, no = 0)     1.191 1.085
 Number of community facilities     1.026 1.022
 GDP per capita in the district (unit: 10,000 yuan)     1.000 1.049
 Medical staff per 10,000 residents in the district     1.022 1.008
Individual-level Intercept 0.785 1.001 0.712 0.268** 0.330*
Log Likelihood − 2307.47 − 2250.28 − 2285.15 − 2289.81 − 2217.10
Variance of District-level Intercept 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.12
Sample size 3415 3415 3408 3415 3408
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05