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Table 1 One Month Study Histopathology Analysis: Test of Group Differences (n = 46; 22 females, 24 males)

From: Toxicology studies of aqueous-alcohol extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens subsp. procumbens (Burch.) DC.Ex Meisn. (Pedaliaceae) in female and male rats

 Control
(n = 12)
2014 HP
(n = 11)
2016 HP
(n = 11)
2016 Butanolic HP
(n = 12)
X2 (df) p
 Scoring:None - # (%)
Mild - # (%)
None - # (%)
Mild - # (%)
None - # (%)
Mild - # (%)
None - # (%)
Mild - # (%)
 
LungInflammation12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Edema12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
LiverDegeneration12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Inflammation12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Necrosis & hemorrhage12 (100)
0 (0)
10 (91)
1 (9)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (92)
1 (8)
2.10 (3) .55
Fibrosis12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Apoptosis****
1
**
1
****
KidneyGlomerulonephritis12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Tubular degeneration / necrosis12 (100)
0 (0)
9 (82)
2 (18)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (92)
1 (8)
4.12 (3) .25
Interstitial nephritis12 (100)
0 (0)
10 (91)
1 (9)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (92)
1 (8)
2.10 (3) .55
Proteinuria10 (83)
2 (17)
6 (55)
5 (45)
8 (73)
3 (27)
7 (58)
5 (42)
2.80 (3) .42
***
HeartInflammation9 (75)
3 (25)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
9.09 (3) .03
Necrosis12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Fibrosis12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
StomachInflammation12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Mucosal erosion / ulceration12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Small IntestineInflammation12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Mucosal erosion / ulceration12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Large IntestineInflammation12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
Mucosal erosion / ulceration12 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
11 (100)
0 (0)
12 (100)
0 (0)
*
  1. # Data included in the attached Excel file
  2. * Chi-square test statistic of differences in level of response between groups not computed due to distribution of responses - no variability in level of response
  3. ** Liver apoptosis was not recorded for any male animals; only noted as “mild” in 2 female rats; no coding for the other female rats and all the male rats
  4. *** An additional statistical test comparing control and 2014 HP groups. X2 (df) p → 2.25 (1) .13. No significant difference between the two most extreme groups
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