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Table 3 Level of evidence assessment using GRADE approach for the outcomes

From: Oral and injectable Marsdenia tenacissima extract (MTE) as adjuvant therapy to chemotherapy for gastric cancer: a systematic review

StudyRisk of biasImprecisionInconsistencyIndirectnessPublication biasLevel of evidence
Marsdenia tenacissima extract in adjutant with chemotherapy for management of gastric cancer
 Response to treatment-1−0− 0− 0− 1Low
 Performance status−1− 1− 0− 0− 0Low
Marsdenia tenacissima extract for reducing adverse effect of chemotherapy
 Leukopenia−1−0− 0− 0− 0Moderate
 Thrombocytopenia− 1− 0− 0− 0− 0Moderate
 Anemia−1− 1− 0− 0−0Low
 Nausea/vomiting− 1−0−0− 0−0Moderate
 Diarrhea−1− 1−0−0− 0Low
 Constipation−1−2−0−0− 0Very low
 Hepatic injury−1−0−0− 0−0Low
 Kidney injury−2− 2−0−0− 0Very low
 Peripheral neurotoxicity−1−0−0− 0−0Moderate
 Oral mucosal lesions−1− 1−0−0− 0Low
  1. Note: In GRADE instrument, the level of evidence of outcomes is judged as high, moderate, low, and very low if the total score is “-0”, “-1”, “-2”, and “≥ −3”, respectively