Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Effects of fish oil supplement on psoriasis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study IDParticipantsInterventionControlOutcome of interest
Bittiner 1988 [12]Chronic stable plaque psoriasis.MaxEPA capsules 10# daily (containing 1.8 g EPA) for 12 weeks.Capsules containing olive oil 10# daily for 12 weeks.Erythema, scaling, BSA, itching.
Bjørneboe 1988 [13]Stable psoriasis vulgaris.MaxEpa® capsules 10# daily (containing 1.8 g EPA and 1.2 g DHA) for 8 weeks.Capsules containing olive oil 10# daily for 8 weeks.Erythema, induration, desquamation, BSA, blood tests.
Danno 1998 [14]Moderately-involved, chronic plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris.20 mg etretinate combined with 1.8 g EPA /day for 12 weeks.20 mg etretinate for 12 weeks.Clinical score (based on erythema, induration, and scaling of 3 selected plaque lesions), AEs, routine lab data.
Grimminger 1993 [15]Acute guttate psoriasis with BSA at least 10%.50 ml fish oil derived lipid emulsion twice daily via IV route for 10 days (containing 2.1 g EPA + 2.2 g DHA per day).50 ml soya oil derived lipid emulsion twice daily via IV route for 10 days.Erythema, infiltration, desquamation, subjective score (based on appearance of lesions, impairment of daily life, pruritus, burn and pain), AEs, blood tests.
Gupta 1989 [17]Stable plaque psoriasis with total BSA 10–50%; skin type II or III.Max-EPAR capsules 10# twice daily (daily total of 3.6 g EPA and 2.4 g DHA) for 15 weeks and UVB therapy for 8 weeks (weeks 3–11).Olive oil capsules 10# twice daily for 15 weeks and UVB therapy for 8 weeks (weeks 3–11).Erythema, thickness, scale, BSA, AEs.
Gupta 1990 [16]Stable plaque type psoriasis with BSA at least 10%.Topical betamethasone diproprionate twice day (45 g/week) + Max-EPAR capsules 10# thrice daily (daily total of 5.4 g EPA and 3.6 g DHA) for 3 weeks then keep Max-EPAR capsules.Topical betamethasone diproprionate twice day (45 g/week) + olive oil capsules 10# thrice daily for 3 weeks then keep olive oil capsules.Global severity score (based on scale, erythema and thickness), BSA, AEs.
Kristensen 2018 [18]Psoriatic arthritis; adult above 18 years of age.Daily intake of 6 capsules containing 3 g of n-3 PUFA (50% EPA + 50% DHA) for 24 weeks (1.5 g EPA + 1.5 g DHA per day).Daily intake of 6 capsules containing 3 g of olive oil for 24 weeks.VAS-pain, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Disease Activity Score based on CRP, tender joint count (68), swollen joint count (66), ASDAS, BASDAI, BASMI, LEI, SPARCC, PASI, NSAID (no. of tablets/week), Paracetamol (no. of tablets/week), lab tests, AEs.
Madland 2006 [19]Polyarticular psoriatic arthritis.10 ml seal oil self administered orally before meals thrice daily for 14 days (2.4 g EPA, 1.1 g DPA, 2.6 g DHA per day).10 ml soy oil self administered orally before meals thrice daily for 14 days.Joint pain intensity, patient’s global assessment, number of tender and swollen joints, PASI, lab tests.
Mayser 1998 [20]Inpatients between 18 and 80 years of age with chronic plaque psoriasis; PASI ≥15.Infusions with a ω-3 fatty acid–based lipid emulsion (Omegavenous) 100 ml twice daily for 14 days (4.2 g of both EPA and DHA/day).Infusions with a conventional ω-6-lipid emulsion (Lipovenous) 100 ml twice daily for 14 days.PASI, PASI 50, intensity of psoriasis, self assessment (VAS), AEs, SAEs, lab tests.
Oliwiecki 1994 [21]Chronic stable plaque psoriasis; 16–70 years old.Placebo capsules (500 mg liquid paraffin) 6# bid for 4 weeks then receiving active treatment (capsules containing 430 mg evening primrose oil + 107 mg fish oil + 10 mg vitamin E; 6# bid) for the next 24 weeks (1.284 g fish oil per day).Placebo capsules (500 mg liquid paraffin) 6# bid for 28 weeks.10 cm linear analogue scale to measure erythema, scaling and overall severity; plaque thickness; patient self-assessment.
Søyland 1993 [22]Stable plaque psoriasis with BSA > 8%.6 capsules daily, each containing 1 g of highly concentrated ethyl esters of very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids (3.06 g EPA + 1.92 g DHA per day), for 4 months.6 capsules of corn oil daily, each containing 1 g, for 4 months.PASI, erythema, infiltration, desquamation, subjective score based on degree of redness, scaling, itching and general effects of the disease on daily living.
Strong 1993 [23]Chronic stable plaque psoriasis of an extent sufficient to warrant inpatient admission.Treated with conventional tar and dithranol during admission ➔ Efamol Marine capsules 500 mg 6# twice daily (containing 80% evening primrose oil and 20% fish oil; 216 mg EPA + 240 mg DHA per day) for up to 7 months after discharge.Treated with conventional tar and dithranol during admission ➔ placebo capsules 600 mg 6# twice daily (containing liquid paraffin) for up to 7 months after discharge.Rate of deterioration after discharge (global score, based on BSA, redness, scaling, overall impression, and itch), blood tests.
Veale 1994 [24]Chronic stable plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.12 Efamol Marine capsules daily (total daily dose of 480 mg GLA, 240 mg EPA and 132 mg DHA) for 9 months ➔ placebo capsules for 3 months.12 placebo capsules daily (containing liquid paraffin) for 12 months.Chang/improvement in inflammatory joint disease, grip strength, number of active joint, Ritchie articular index, duration of morning stiffness, NASID intake, skin severity (VAS), BSA, itch (VAS), blood tests.
  1. AE Adverse event, ASDAS Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, BSA Body surface area involved, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, DPA Docosapentaenoic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid, GLA Gamma-linolenic acid, LEI Leeds Enthesitis Index, PASI Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, PASI 50 at least 50% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score, SAE Serious adverse event, SPARCC Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada Enthesitis Index, VAS Visual analogue scale