|References||Experimental model||Treatment||Outcome measures||Results||Conclusion|
|Pei et al. 2018 ||Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced heart failure in Sprague-Dawley rats.||50 mg/kg/day oral TQ.||
1. Left ventricular functions.|
2. Atherosclerotic lesion.
3. Fibrosis markers.
4. Apoptosis markers.
|Treatment of TQ reverses Dox-induced pathological changes in the heart via inhibition of fibrosis and apoptosis.||TQ mitigates Dox-induced cardiac damage and fibrosis.|
|Abidi et al. 2017 ||Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in Wistar rats.||1 mg/kg/day oral NSO.||
1. Physical measurements.|
2. Histological evaluation.
3. Liver metabolites.
4. Urine metabolites.
5. Expression of TGF-β1.
|Treatment with NSO reverse bleomycin-induced pathological changes via induction of TGF-β1.||NSO have shown to resolve BLM-induced PF due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties|
|Pourgholamhossein et al. 2016||Paraquat-induced lung fibrosis in NMRI mice.||20 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day oral TQ.||
1. Histological evaluation.|
2. Oxidative stress analysis.
3. Hydroxyproline content.
4. Gene expression.
|Treatment with TQ reverses paraquat-induced lung fibrosis inhibition of fibrosis and antioxidant activity.||TQ is able to reduce pulmonary fibrosis via its anti-fibrotic property.|
|Abdelghany et al. 2016 ||Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced renal fibrosis in Wistar rats.||15 mg/ml oral TQ with or without 1000 IU/ml of Vitamin D3.||
1. Liver function parameters.|
2. Renal function parameters.
3. Histological assessment.
4. Cytokines level.
|Treatment of TQ reverses CCl4-induced renal fibrosis via inhibition of inflammation.||TQ shows anti-fibrotic properties in carbon tetrachloride-induced renal fibrosis.|
|Al-Gayyar et al. 2016 ||Sodium nitrite (NaNO2)-induced renal fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats.||2.5 ml/kg oral NSO.||
1. Renal function parameters.|
2. Fibrotic markers.
3. Cytokine levels.
4. Protein kinase activity.
5. Apoptosis markers.
|Treatment with NSO reverses sodium nitrite-induced renal fibrosis via antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.||NSO have been shown to resolve NaNO2-induced nephrotoxicity.|