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Table 2 Effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on organ fibrosis

From: Effect of Nigella sativa and its bioactive compound on type 2 epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a systematic review

References Experimental model Treatment Outcome measures Results Conclusion
Myocardial Fibrosis
Pei et al. 2018 [38] Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced heart failure in Sprague-Dawley rats. 50 mg/kg/day oral TQ. 1. Left ventricular functions.
2. Atherosclerotic lesion.
3. Fibrosis markers.
4. Apoptosis markers.
Treatment of TQ reverses Dox-induced pathological changes in the heart via inhibition of fibrosis and apoptosis. TQ mitigates Dox-induced cardiac damage and fibrosis.
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Abidi et al. 2017 [23] Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in Wistar rats. 1 mg/kg/day oral NSO. 1. Physical measurements.
2. Histological evaluation.
3. Liver metabolites.
4. Urine metabolites.
5. Expression of TGF-β1.
Treatment with NSO reverse bleomycin-induced pathological changes via induction of TGF-β1. NSO have shown to resolve BLM-induced PF due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties
Pourgholamhossein et al. 2016[42] Paraquat-induced lung fibrosis in NMRI mice. 20 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day oral TQ. 1. Histological evaluation.
2. Oxidative stress analysis.
3. Hydroxyproline content.
4. Gene expression.
Treatment with TQ reverses paraquat-induced lung fibrosis inhibition of fibrosis and antioxidant activity. TQ is able to reduce pulmonary fibrosis via its anti-fibrotic property.
Liver Fibrosis
Abdelghany et al. 2016 [40] Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced renal fibrosis in Wistar rats. 15 mg/ml oral TQ with or without 1000 IU/ml of Vitamin D3. 1. Liver function parameters.
2. Renal function parameters.
3. Histological assessment.
4. Cytokines level.
Treatment of TQ reverses CCl4-induced renal fibrosis via inhibition of inflammation. TQ shows anti-fibrotic properties in carbon tetrachloride-induced renal fibrosis.
Renal Fibrosis
Al-Gayyar et al. 2016 [24] Sodium nitrite (NaNO2)-induced renal fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. 2.5 ml/kg oral NSO. 1. Renal function parameters.
2. Fibrotic markers.
3. Cytokine levels.
4. Protein kinase activity.
5. Apoptosis markers.
Treatment with NSO reverses sodium nitrite-induced renal fibrosis via antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. NSO have been shown to resolve NaNO2-induced nephrotoxicity.
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