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Table 1 Effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone in wound healing

From: Effect of Nigella sativa and its bioactive compound on type 2 epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a systematic review

References Experimental model Treatment Outcome measures Results Conclusion
Cutaneous Incisional Wound
Gomaa et al. 2017 [25] Incisional wound in Balb/C mice. 3% (w/w) thymoquinone (TQ) loaded into nanofiber. 1. Wound area measurement.
2. Histopathology assessment.
Treatment with TQ improve wound closure and tissue healing. TQ-loaded nanofiber shows potential to be used for wound dressing.
Han et al. 2017 [35] Full thickness wound in Wistar rats. 50% topical Nigella sativa (NS) cream. 1. Wound contraction.
2. Biochemical analysis.
3. Histological evaluation.
Treatment with NS cream increases wound contraction rate and antioxidant activity but have no effect in tissue granulation. NS heals via its antioxidant effect in full thickness wound.
Cutaneous Burn Wound
Sulaiman et al. 2014 [48] Burn wound model in albino rats Topical micro-emulsion of 5% NS honey and 5% of its propolis. 1. Wound contraction. Treatment of NS honey and its propolis increases wound contraction rate. Microemulsion of NS honey and propolis contribute to faster burn wound healing.
Selcuk et al. 2013 [29] Burn wound model in Sprague-Dawley rats 2 mg/kg/day oral TQ or 0.5% topical TQ. 1. Histological assessment.
2. Total antioxidant state.
3. Total oxidative stress.
4. Bacterial assessment
Topical treatment of TQ was superior compared to oral TQ in improving wound histology, enhancing antioxidant activity, and reducing bacterial growth. Topical TQ is superior to oral TQ in improving wound healing.
Yaman et al. 2010 [34] Burn wound model in male, Wistar-albino rats. 50% topical NS oil (NSO). 1. Gross morphology of the wound.
2. Histological evaluation.
Treatment with NSO reduces inflammation and demonstrated better tissue granulation in wound. NSO has been shown to promote faster burn wound healing.
Cutaneous Diabetic Wound
Yusmin & Ahmad 2017 [26] Chronic delayed wound in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. 10% topical TQ. 1. Wound contraction.
2. Histological evaluation.
Treatment with TQ increased healing and reduced inflammatory cells and fibroblast at day 3. However, wound improvement declines on day 7 and day 14. TQ heals faster in inflammatory phase but slower during the proliferative phase due to its antiangiogenic properties
Corneal Wound
Salem et al. 2016[27] Formaldehyde-induced corneal toxicity in albino rats. 40 mg/kg/day oral NSO 1. Histological evaluation. Treatment with NSO reverses formaldehyde-induced pathological changes. NSO shown to resolved corneal injury induced by formaldehyde toxicity