Skip to main content

Table 3 Top ten herbal and traditional medicine according to self-reported conditions or laboratory defined diseases

From: Herbal or traditional medicine consumption in a Thai worker population: pattern of use and therapeutic control in chronic diseases

Self-reported disease Laboratory-defined disease
Diabetes Hypertension Dyslipidemia Liver disease Cancer ALT × 1.5 CKD
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.)
Heart-leaved moonseed
(Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson),
Safflower
(Carthamus tinctorius Linn.)
Black ginger
(Kaempferia parviflora Wallich. ex Baker.)
Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Kars)
Garlic
(Allium sativum L.)
Drumstick tree
(Moringa oleifera Lam.)
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa L.)
Mixed botanical preparations
Ginseng
(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.)
Garlic
(Allium sativum L.)
Heart-leaved moonseed
(Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson),
Cinnamon
(Cinnamomum spp.)
Lingzhi mushroom
(Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis)
P. Kars)
Mixed botanical preparations
Kariyat (Andropraphis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees)
Drumstick tree
(Moringa oleifera Lam.)
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa L.)
Ginseng
(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.)
Traditional alcohol with herbs
Heart-leaved moonseed
(Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson)
Black ginger
(Kaempferia parviflora Wallich. ex Baker.)
Safflower
(Carthamus tinctorius Linn.)
Cinnamon
(Cinnamomum spp.)
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa L.)
Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Kars)
Kariyat
(Andropraphis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees)
Mixed botanical preparations
Ginseng
(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.)
Drumstick tree
(Moringa oleifera Lam.)
Heart-leaved moonseed
(Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson)
Mixed botanical preparations
Cinnamon
(Cinnamomum spp.)
Lingzhi mushroom
(Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Kars)
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa L.)
Garlic
(Allium sativum L.)
Kariyat
(Andropraphis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees)
Ginseng
(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.)
Drumstick tree
(Moringa oleifera Lam.)
Black ginger
(Kaempferia parviflora Wallich. ex Baker.)
Lingzhi mushroom
(Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Kars)
Ginseng
(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.)
Cinnamon
(Cinnamomum spp.),
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa L.)
Safflower
(Carthamus tinctorius Linn.)
Mixed botanical preparations
Black ginger
(Kaempferia parviflora Wallich. ex Baker.)
Kariyat
(Andropraphis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees)
Mixed botanical preparations
Safflower
(Carthamus tinctorius Linn.)
Garlic
(Allium sativum L.),
Cinnamon
(Cinnamomum spp.)
Ginseng
(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.)
Kariyat
(Andropraphis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees)
Heart-leaved moonseed
(Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson
Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Kars)
Drumstick tree
(Moringa oleifera Lam.)
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa L.)
Black ginger
(Kaempferia parviflora Wallich. ex Baker.)
Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Kars)
Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora Wallich. ex Baker.)
Ginseng
(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.)
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa L.)
Cinnamon
(Cinnamomum spp.)
Garlic
(Allium sativum L.)
Kariyat
(Andropraphis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees)
Mixed botanical preparations
Drumstick tree
(Moringa oleifera Lam.)
  1. Abbreviations: ALT × 1.5; 1.5 times upper limit of normal for alanine aminotransferase; CKD, chronic kidney disease defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73m2