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Table 4 ANCOVA comparison of Bikram yoga versus HIIT scores of primary and secondary outcomes at post-intervention (t1) after controlling for baseline (t0) scores. Displayed are t0 means (M) and standard deviations (SD), ANCOVA t1 estimated marginal means (M), SD, F value, p- value, and partial eta-squared effect sizes. Missing data was replaced by single imputation of the mean

From: #MindinBody - feasibility of vigorous exercise (Bikram yoga versus high intensity interval training) to improve persistent pain in women with a history of trauma: a pilot randomized control trial

  t0 Bikram yoga
(n = 17)
t0 HIIT
(n = 15)
t1 Bikram yoga
(n = 17)
t1 HIIT
(n = 15
  Partial eta squared
Response Variable M SD M SD Ma SD Ma SD F-value p-value
Primary Outcome
 BPI TOT 6.80 3.16 9.23 3.79 6.79 3.71 6.67 4.16 0.01 0.914 0.000
 BPI-Severity 3.23 1.50 4.61 1.43 3.19 1.52 3.47 1.86 0.32 0.577 0.011
 BPI-Interference 3.57 1.84 4.41 2.49 3.44 2.48 3.37 2.41 0.01 0.920 0.000
Secondary Outcomes
 SF-36 PF 74.41 16.85 72.67 20.34 80.91 18.27 68.96 18.45 6.17 0.019* 0.175
 SF-36 RP 52.21 23.79 56.67 25.92 54.90 18.85 54.13 23.52 0.01 0.918 0.000
 SF-36 BP 45.94 15.40 42.67 20.61 55.39 18.60 44.75 21.21 2.35 0.136 0.075
 SF-36 GH 36.66 19.97 23.36 20.80 44.85 21.29 43.51 23.55 0.08 0.786 0.003
 SF-36 VT 30.15 22.99 29.17 18.85 39.13 20.58 39.29 15.87 0.001 0.978 0.000
 SF-36 SF 52.21 23.90 50.00 25.88 64.42 26.23 52.41 23.07 1.96 0.173 0.063
 SF-36 RE 53.43 29.03 48.33 27.13 66.12 23.84 65.77 25.42 0.02 0.965 0.000
 SF-36 MH 54.12 21.16 47.00 19.07 63.94 16.67 49.37 16.42 9.09 0.005* 0.239
 DASS-21 Stress 10.29 4.48 12.00 3.91 8.93 5.42 9.52 4.52 0.11 0.742 0.004
 DASS-21 Anxiety 5.94 4.60 7.47 4.93 5.16 4.18 6.16 6.12 0.50 0.484 0.017
 DASS-21 Depression 8.76 5.67 9.27 5.06 6.69 5.78 7.38 6.30 0.12 0.732 0.004
 SIDES-SR total 12.78 9.87 15.46 12.88 10.03 9.10 10.79 10.72 0.07 0.795 0.002
 FFMQ total 117.41 19.94 110.20 50.42 120.41 13.94 122.47 19.93 0.28 0.600 0.010
 CSE 123.76 45.91 115.07 20.94 142.45 46.53 130.66 50.24 0.59 0.450 0.020
 HR 67 12 72 12 69 10 72 10 0.82 0.374 0.028
 SDNN 65.27 33.09 53.11 18.14 68.01 36.43 51.94 14.75 5.612 0.025*b 0.162
 LFnu 48.99 16.21 49.75 18.21 44.94 23.76 55.33 17.85 2.94 0.097 0.092
 HFnu 47.17 15.65 48.08 16.73 54.02 22.14 42.59 16.93 3.49 0.072 0.107
 SAP 112 9 109 9 112 11 112 8 0.02 0.905 0.001
 DAP 73 11 71 10 74 10 74 10 0.10 0.755 0.003
  1. Abbreviations: HIIT High Intensity Interval Training, SD Standard deviation, BPI TOT combined severity and interference scores of the Brief Pain Inventory, PF Physical Functioning, RP Role Physical, BP Body Pain, GH General Health, VT Vitality, SF Social Functioning, RE Role Emotional, MH Mental Health, DASS Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, SIDES-SR Self-Report Instrument for Disorders of Extreme Stress, FFMQ Five Factor Mindfulness Scale, CSE Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, HR Heart Rate, HRV Heart Rate Variability, SDNN Standard Deviation of the Normal beat to Normal beat interval, LFnu Low-Frequency normalized units, HFnu High-Frequency normalized units, SAP Systolic arterial pressure, DAP Diastolic arterial pressure
  2. *Significant: p < 0.05
  3. a ANCOVA estimated marginal means (adjusted for t0 scores)
  4. bA square-root transformation adjusted to remove outliers
  5. Partial eta squared: small effect (0.01) - medium effect (0.09), large effect (0.25)