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Table 1 The detailed characteristics of each selected study

From: The therapeutic effects of qigong in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the stable stage: a meta-analysis

Author Study design Initial inclusion of patients Mean age, years (I/C) Intervention in the control group Intervention in the Qigong group Actual number in control group Actual number in experimental group Qigong style Protocol for Qigong
Xu 2010 [33] RCT 40 57.02/57.51 Conventional drugs Conventional drugs + Qigong 20 20 Baduanjin 60 min/time, 1 time/day, 1 year
Xue 2015 [35] RCT 59 66.73/63.89 Conventional drugs Conventional drugs + Qigong 28 31 Baduanjin 30 min/time, at least 4 times/week, 6 months
Guo 2016 [36] RCT 120 70.87/70.79 Conventional drugs + routine health advice + walking Conventional drugs + routine health advice + Qigong 56 55 Baduanjin 30 min/time, 4 times/week, 36 weeks
Booby 2011 [25] RCT 80 71.7/73.1 Conventional rehabilitation + walking Qigong 29 23 Baduanjin 45 min/time, at least 4 times/week,6 months
Yi 2013 [37] RCT 22 70.40/69.17 Conventional drugs + breathing exercise Conventional drugs + Qigong 12 10 Baduanjin 30 min/time, 1 time/day, 6 months
Wang 2013 [34] RCT 87 71.16/74.40 Conventional drugs + conventional rehabilitation Conventional drugs + conventional rehabilitation + Qigong 41 39 Liuzijue 30 min/time, 2 times/day, 1 year
Xiao 2015 [31] RCT 126 72.20/70.90 Walking Walking + Qigong 60 59 Liuzijue 45 min/time, at least 4 times/week, 6 months
Gao 2015 [38] RCT 120 71.42/74.24 Conventional drugs + conventional rehabilitation Conventional drugs + conventional rehabilitation + Qigong 57 55 Yijinjing 60 min/time, 2 times/day, 6 months
Zhang 2016 [32] RCT 148 64.77/62.35 Conventional rehabilitation Conventional rehabilitation + Qigong 45 42 Yijinjing 60 min/day, split the 60-min practice time into morning and afternoon sessions, 6 months
Liu 2012 [30] RCT 96 61.82/62.20 Conventional rehabilitation Conventional rehabilitation + Qigong 35 51 Reproduced Qigong 60 min/time, 3 times/week, 6 months
  1. I/C intervention/control, RCT randomized controlled trial