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Fig. 6 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 6

From: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal ameliorates neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments associated with systemic inflammation

Fig. 6

ASH-WEX and FIV prevent apoptosis of neurons induced by LPS-induced neuroinflammation (a, b, c) Representative Confocal micrographs of DAPI immunostaining of primary cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar neurons respectively treated with (column I) ASH-WEX and FIV directly with or without activation with 100 ng/mL LPS, (column II) conditioned medium collected from LPS stimulated primary microglial cells with or without pretreatment with ASH-WEX and FIV for 24 h. (d, e, f) Histograms depicting percentage of apoptotic cells (Mean ± SEM) in primary hippocampal, cortical and cerebellar neuronal cultures, respectively, among different treatment groups calculated from three independent experiments. Cultures treated directly with ASH-WEX and FIV with or without activation with LPS were taken as 100%. *p ≤ 0.05 CM-Control versus CM-ASH-WEX alone, CM-FIV alone, CM-LPS + ASH-WEX and CM-LPS + FIV-treated groups. +p ≤ 0.05 CM-Control versus CM-LPS-treated group. #p ≤ 0.05 CM-LPS- versus CM-LPS + ASH-WEX- and CM-LPS + FIV-treated groups. &p ≤ 0.05 represents statistically significant difference between cultures treated with or without microglial conditioned medium corresponding to different treatment groups (one way ANOVA with Holm-Sidak post hoc test). Images were captured using Nikon A1R Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope at 60X magnification (Scale bar = 50 μm)

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