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Fig. 5 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 5

From: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal ameliorates neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments associated with systemic inflammation

Fig. 5

ASH-WEX and FIV protect neurons from LPS activated microglial mediated neurotoxicity (a, b, c) Representative Confocal micrographs of MAP2 immunostaining of primary hippocampal, cortical and cerebellar neurons, respectively treated with (column I) ASH-WEX and FIV with or without activation with 100 ng/mL LPS and (column II) LPS conditioned medium collected from LPS stimulated primary microglial cells with or without pretreatment with ASH-WEX and FIV for 24 h. (d, e, f) Histograms presenting relative optical intensity of MAP2 (Mean ± SEM) in primary hippocampal, cortical and cerebellar neurons, respectively,among different treatment groups. (g, h, i) Histograms depicting percentage neurite outgrowth (Mean ± SEM) in primary hippocampal, cortical and cerebellar neurons, respectively, among different treatment groups calculated from three independent experiments. Cultures treated directly with ASH-WEX and FIV with or without activation with LPS were taken as 100%. Direct treatment of 100 ng/mL LPS was observed to be non-toxic for neurons. *p ≤ 0.05 CM-Control versus CM-ASH-WEX alone, CM-FIV alone, CM-LPS + ASH-WEX and CM-LPS + FIV-treated groups. +p ≤ 0.05 CM-Control versus CM-LPS-treated group. #p ≤ 0.05 CM-LPS- versus CM-LPS + ASH-WEX- and CM-LPS + FIV-treated groups. &p ≤ 0.05 represents statistically significant difference between cultures treated with or without microglial conditioned medium corresponding to different treatment groups (one way ANOVA with Holm-Sidak post hoc test). Images were captured using Nikon A1R Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope at 60X magnification (Scale bar = 50 μm)

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