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Table 3 Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis of apoptosis occurrence in HeLa cells after GA treatment alone and after NAC pre-treatment (in %). The results are presented from 3 independent experiments. Significantly different, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus untreated cells (control); +P < 0.05, ++P < 0.01 versus GA

From: Oxidative stress mediated by gyrophoric acid from the lichen Umbilicaria hirsuta affected apoptosis and stress/survival pathways in HeLa cells

Treatment Time (h) An/PI
Live cells
An+/PI
Early apoptotic
An+/PI+
Late apoptotic and death
Control 24 90.90 ± 0.65 2.50 ± 0.16 6.57 ± 0.42
48 89.60 ± 1.11 2.60 ± 0.59 7.79 ± 1.23
72 89.50 ± 1.99 3.17 ± 0.60 7.32 ± 0.81
NAC 24 89.10 ± 1.66 3.50 ± 0.44 7.35 ± 0,66
48 92.30 ± 1.82 1.88 ± 0.33 5.77 ± 0.28
72 94.80 ± 1.43 1.68 ± 0.19 3.56 ± 0.37
GA 24 52.80 ± 2.45** 22.70 ± 1.00** 24.53 ± 3.29*
48 30.30 ± 2.99*** 31.30 ± 2.66** 38.40 ± 2.45**
72 28.40 ± 1.75*** 21.80 ± 2.12** 49.78 ± 3.33***
NAC/GA 24 72.90 ± 1.77*,++ 16.00 ± 0.90*,+ 11.11 ± 1.71*,+
48 68.30 ± 2.20**,++ 13.60 ± 1.59*,+ 18.14 ± 1.54*,++
72 67.40 ± 3.19**,++ 11.30 ± 0.69*,+ 21.25 ± 2.34*,++