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Fig. 2 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Oxidative stress mediated by gyrophoric acid from the lichen Umbilicaria hirsuta affected apoptosis and stress/survival pathways in HeLa cells

Fig. 2

Effect of GA alone or after NAC pre-treatment on superoxide anion generation (a), ROS levels (b) and DNA damage induction (c) in HeLa cells. Data were obtained from three independent flow cytometry experiments after 1–72 h GA treatment. Significance: * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 versus untreated cells (control); + P < 0.05, ++ P < 0.01, +++ P < 0.001 versus GA

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