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Table 4 Differentially expressed tissue metabolites between normal controls and rats with gastric ulcer and between gastric ulcer and after treatment with AW extract

From: Therapeutic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats: a proteomic and metabolomic approach

Metabolite Matched chemical shifts I vs. C I + AW vs. I
VIP* Fold (I/C) VIP* Fold (I + AW/I)
Acetylcarnitine 3.175, 3.595, 3.845, 3.615 3.009b 0.15 2.149b 7.61
Xylose 3.515, 3.215 2.677a 0.30 1.696a 3.09
Myo-inositol 3.265, 3.605 3.054a 1.49 5.288a 0.53
Carnitine 3.415 3.457b 0.05 2.486b 17.3
Tryptophan 3.295, 3.475 2.974b 0.26 1.953a 3.49
Taurine 3.405, 3.395 3.401b 0.13 2.276b 7.79
Glucose 3.505, 3.835 3.007b 0.24 1.945a 4.11
Homovanillate 3.455, 3.855 3.490b 0.26 1.873 4.09
Choline 3.525 2.232a 0.44 1.563 2.21
Pantothenate 3.425, 3.535 2.839b 0.27 1.805 3.87
Isoleucine 1.255, 3.665 2.360b 0.20 1.981 6.52
Betaine 3.255 3.546a 1.75 4.950b 0.48
Acetylcholine 3.205 3.070a 2.00 4.504a 0.37
4-hydroxyproline 3.375, 3.485, 3.495, 3.465 2.944b 0.26 1.880a 3.88
Kynurenine 3.705 2.424a 0.10 2.072 10.2
α-ketoisovalerate 1.135, 2.955 3.270b 0.05 2.296a 17.4
2-oxobutyrate 1.085, 1.065 2.755b 3.51 3.943b 0.25
Glycine 3.555 3.317b 0.17 2.140a 5.40
Spermidine 3.115, 3.165 3.002a 0.16 2.912 5.41
cis-aconitate 3.075, 3.085 4.307c 15.2 4.779c 0.05
n-methylhistidine 3.675 2.009a 0.17 2.040a 5.22
Glucose-1-phosphate 3.385 3.282b 0.17 2.186a 4.74
  1. C: control group, I: rats with indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, I + AW: ulcerated rats treated with AW extract. a: p < 0.05, b: p < 0.01, c: p < 0.001. *metabolites with VIP > 1 are considered