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Table 3 Predictors associated independently with acute and chronic adverse effects. Only those categories of predictors are shown that were significantly associated with acute or chronic adverse effects

From: Adverse effects of yoga: a national cross-sectional survey

Dependent variablePredictor variableAdjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
Acute adverse effectsChronic illness1.78 (1.37–2.31)
Primary yoga style 
 Asthanga Yoga1.43 (0.92–2.25)
 (Traditional) Hatha Yoga1.09 (0.68–1.75)
 Iyengar Yoga1.49 (0.88–2.51)
 Kundalini Yoga0.60 (0.35–1.04)
 Krishnamacharya Tradition / Viniyoga0.54 (0.30–0.99)
 Power Yoga1.88 (0.99–3.56)
 Sivananda Yoga / Yoga Vidya1.06 (0.69–1.62)
Home practice (self-study)1.75 (1.31–2.33)
Weekly practice frequency: meditation 
 First quartileReference
 Second quartile0.92 (0.64–1.32)
 Third quartile0.60 (0.40–0.92)
 Fourth quartile1.01 (0.66–1.54)
Weekly practice frequency: philosophy 
 First quartileReference
 Second quartile1.27 (0.87–1.86)
 Third quartile1.31 (0.87–1.97)
 Fourth quartile2.00 (1.32–3.03)
Chronic adverse effectsChronic illness1.44 (1.02–2.02)
Home practice (self-study)1.72 (1.20–2.47)