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Fig. 1 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) possess developmental toxicity as revealed by screening the seeds and fruit extracts in zebrafish embryos

Fig. 1

Seed extract of Momordica charantia induced multiple teratological defects in developing zebrafish embryos. Representative photomicrograph of live zebrafish embryos at 3dpf control (a) and treated with various concentration of seeds extract of M. charantia (B-F). The highest concentration in which treated embryos could survive was 50 μg/ml and the representative image of treated embryos are presented in b. The embryos treated with 50 μg/ml of seeds extracts were severely developmentally delayed as compared to mock treated embryos as shown in a. The control embryos developed to 72hpf, after two days but treated embryos were at 15 somite stage after two days of exposure. c The zebrafish embryos which were treated with 25 μg/ml of the seeds extract exhibited multiple teratogenic effect. The treated embryos were developmentally delayed as compared to control, had small head, enlarged yolk (yolk), severe cardiac hypertrophy (arrow), enlarged cardiac cavity (arrow head) absence of tail extension (shown in small inset) absence of circulation (shown in Additional file 1 as supplementary data d). The zebrafish embryos treated with 15 μg/ml of seeds extract of M. charantia also had mild level of developmental delay, enlarged cardiac cavity (arrow head). The heart was severely affected as both atrium and ventricle were fused representing as string (black arrow). The treated embryos had curved trunk as shown in small at lower magnification. e. the zebrafish embryos treated with 10 μg/ml of the seeds extract had mild level of developmental delay but the treated embryos ad severe cardiac hypertrophy (arrow) and also enlarged cardiac cavity (arrow head). f). zebrafish embryos treated with 5 μg/ml of the seeds extract did not show development delay however, the cardiac hypertrophy (arrow) was evident in treated embryos. All embryos anterior to the left

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