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Table 4 Serum liver and kidney parameters in rats treated orally with GLES for 90 days

From: Safety assessment of the ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium Benth. leaves: a 90-day oral toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats

  Control GLES1 GLES2 GLES3
Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male
ALT (IU/L) 50.80 ± 3.97 60.70 ± 4.38 51.60 ± 1.29 62.50 ± 3.43 49.80 ± 3.54 60.80 ± 2.97 48.60 ± 2.59 58.50 ± 2.81
AST (IU/L) 157.00 ± 19.56 216.10 ± 21.63 127.60 ± 8.39 208.00 ± 17.10 172.10 ± 19.46 210.20 ± 21.85 113.30 ± 10.88 170.40 ± 16.58
TP (g/L) 81.40 ± 1.64 70.90 ± 1.73 82.30 ± 1.48 73.90 ± 1.55 85.00 ± 1.82 72.20 ± 1.58 81.10 ± 0.90 73.70 ± 1.22
ALB (g/L) 35.10 ± 0.89 32.40 ± 1.28 34.10 ± 0.66 32.00 ± 1.51 36.70 ± 0.63 33.40 ± 1.28 34.60 ± 0.58 33.60 ± 1.24
ALP (IU/L) 115.00 ± 14.42 123.70 ± 10.51 143.50 ± 18.45 128.30 ± 16.34 88.90 ± 14.48 138.50 ± 20.32 109.30 ± 10.46 108.50 ± 7.30
GLO (g/L) 46.30 ± 1.14 38.50 ± 2.46 48.20 ± 1.93 41.90 ± 2.11 48.30 ± 1.63 38.80 ± 2.46 46.50 ± 0.54 40.10 ± 2.33
BUN (mM/L) 5.56 ± 0.30 7.32 ± 0.19 5.73 ± 0.17 7.76 ± 0.25 5.85 ± 0.41 7.75 ± 0.24 4.88 ± 0.19 7.92 ± 0.25
CREA (mM/L) 39.60 ± 2.16 35.60 ± 3.59 39.10 ± 1.17 35.90 ± 3.99 42.00 ± 2.65 32.10 ± 3.21 39.60 ± 0.88 32.10 ± 1.87
Ca (mM/L) 2.78 ± 0.03 2.44 ± 0.03 2.79 ± 0.03 2.47 ± 0.02 2.73 ± 0.02 2.47 ± 0.02 2.72 ± 0.03 2.51 ± 0.02
P (mM/L) 2.25 ± 0.09 2.81 ± 0.05 2.40 ± 0.09 2.79 ± 0.11 2.17 ± 0.08 2.75 ± 0.11 2.07 ± 0.09 2.70 ± 0.06
  1. n = 10 rats/sex/group; data are presented as mean ± SEM