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Table 5 Effect of RHTR on biochemical and hematological parameters of BALB/c mice in the acute toxicity study

From: Biological and toxicological evaluation of Rhus trilobata Nutt. (Anacardiaceae) used traditionally in mexico against cancer

Time 24 h. 14 days Reference range
Treatment AE FF 1X PBS AE FF 1X PBS (Midrange)
BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS
 Glucose (mg/dL) 118.7 ± 13.8 113.7 ± 17.5 138.7 ± 17.9 130.2 ± 6.9 127.7 ± 15.4 141.5 ± 10.4 63–176 (89)
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 70.13 ± 11.3 74.6 ± 7.4 81.4 ± 8.6 121.8 ± 17.2 112.75 ± 19.8 98.5 ± 7.3 55–115 (85)
 Cholesterol (mg/dL) 76.3 ± 8.5 77.5 ± 14.4 75 ± 8.2 61 ± 12.7 55 ± 5.8 65 ± 2.8 26–82 (64)
 Protein (g/dL) 5.4 ± 0.5 5.5 ± 0.6 5.4 ± 0.25 5.7 ± 0.63 5.2 ± 0.5 5.8 ± 0.82 4–8.6 (6.2)
 AST (TGO) (U/L) 205 ± 45.3 * 152.5 ± 8.7 127.5 ± 19.4 132 ± 19.7 165 ± 45.5 161.8 ± 47.5 55–251 (139)
 ALT (TGP) (U/L) 55.9 ± 8.8 78.7 ± 0.3 * 52.9 ± 6.2 64.4 ± 1.4 74.7 ± 16.1 70.7 ± 5.8 17–77 (47)
 LDH (U/L) 1234 ± 221 954 ± 281 1330 ± 274 1122 ± 201 980 ± 286 997.3 ± 70.3 149–215 (182)
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.62 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.01 0.46 ± 0.09 0.2–0.9 (0.5)
 Urea (mg/dL) 60 ± 5.8 56.2 ± 4.8 53.7 ± 6.3 65 ± 4.1 57.5 ± 6.5 56.7 ± 7.2 46.9–73 (60.1)
HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 15.16 ± 1.09 13.5 ± 0.36 14.76 ± 0.90 16 ± 1.05 13.23 ± 1.8 14.13 ± 0.20 10–17 (13.1)
 Hematocrit (%) 47.2 ± 4.07 39.33 ± 3.40 43.93 ± 2.83 49.5 ± 3.99 38.8 ± 5.63 43.7 ± 0.55 39–49 (40.4)
 Erythrocytes (X106/mm3) 9.69 ± 1.16 7.34 ± 0.95 9.27 ± 0.97 9.92 ± 0.85 7.91 ± 1.13 8.84 ± 0.43 8.3
 MCHC (%) 32.06 ± 0.66 36.36 ± 4.56 33.63 ± 1.04 32.3 ± 0.52 36.26 ± 2.57 32.3 ± 0.72 32.3
 MCH (pg) 15.66 ± 0.8 14.63 ± 3.68 15.96 ± 0.96 16.1 ± 0.34 14.3 ± 2.4 15.96 ± 0.86 15.9
 MCV (μL) 48.9 ± 1.6 47.26 ± 11.49 47.5 ± 1.83 49.9 ± 0.3 48.9 ± 1.95 49.5 ± 1.83 49.1
 Leukocytes (×  100/mm3) 5000 ± 953.9 4233.3 ± 1404.7 5666.66 ± 808.29 4466.66 ± 929.15 4666.6 ± 1242.3 5033.33 ± 1227.8 5–12 (6.33)
 RDW-CV 15 ± 1.17 18.7 ± 1.56 17.96 ± 1.11 13.73 ± 0.57 * 16.33 ± 0.97 16.16 ± 1.20  
 RDW-SD 24.26 ± 3.18 * 32.63 ± 18.9 33.2 ± 5.32 22.8 ± 0.51* 26.13 ± 1.5 25.73 ± 1.38  
 Platelets (/μL) 437,333 ± 94,214 558,666.6 ± 230,048.5 627,000 ± 95,859.2 368,000 ± 46,130 425,333.3 ± 325,423 572,666 ± 158,190 116 × 103
 MPV (fL) 7.6 ± 0.2 7.5 ± 2.4 8.16 ± 0.87 7.56 ± 0.15 9.43 ± 0.49 * 7.6 ± 0.3  
 PDW (%) 14 ± 0.1 14.6 ± 4.5 14.96 ± 2.32 14.06 ± 0.15 13.03 ± 2.8 14 ± 0.26  
 PCT (%) 0.33 ± 0.07 * 0.27 ± 0.05 * 0.51 ± 0.12 0.277 ± 0.03 * 0.585 ± 0.12 0.432 ± 0.10  
 Lymphocytes (%) 67.33 ± 10.06 * 74 ± 7.21 82 ± 2 65 ± 13.4 63.3 ± 4.16 68 ± 20.7 35–90
 Monocytes (%) 1.33 ± 1.15 0 0.33 ± 0.57 0.33 ± 0.57 0 0 0–3
 Eosinophils (%) 2 0 0 0 0 0 0–7
 Basophils (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0–1
 Segmented neutrophils (%) 38 ± 9.16 * 25.3 ± 7.5 17.66 ± 2.08 34.66 ± 13.61 16.66 ± 4.16 24.66 ± 27.30 10–40
 Neutrophils band (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Immature shape (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  1. The results show the mean ± S.D. of two biological replicates (n = 5)
  2. The numbers in bold indicate differences with respect to reference values for the mouse
  3. *, p < 0.05 vs the 1X PBS control group (without treatment)
  4. References range, minimum and maximum normal value for the analyte of interest in BALB/c mice and the respective midrange
  5. AE aqueous extract, FF flavonoid fraction
  6. AST (TGO) aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (TGO) alanine aminotransferase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCV mean corpuscular volume, RDW-CV red blood cell distribution width as coefficient of variation, RDW-SD red blood cell distribution width as standard deviation, MPV mean platelet volume in femtoliters, PDW platelet distribution width, PCT platelecrit