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Table 1 Bioactivity of Picea mariana needle extracts in PC12-AC grown in hyperglycemic media

From: Growth environment and organ specific variation in in-vitro cytoprotective activities of Picea mariana in PC12 cells exposed to glucose toxicity: a plant used for treatment of diabetes symptoms by the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada)

Extract IDa Bioactivity in hyperglycemic mediab
1FN Cytoprotective
1BN None
2FN None
2BN None
3FN None
3BN None
4FN None
4BN None
5FN None
5BN None
6FN Cytoprotective
6BN Cytoprotective
7FN None
7BN Cytoprotective
8FN Mitogenic
8BN Mitogenic
9FN None
9BN Cytoprotective
10FN Cytoprotective
10BN None
11FN None
11BN None
13FN None
13BN None
14FN None
14BN None
15FN None
15BN None
16FN Cytoprotective
16BN None
17FN Cytoprotective
17BN Cytoprotective
18FN Cytoprotective
18BN Cytoprotective
19FN None
19BN Cytoprotective
20FN None
20BN None
21FN Cytoprotective
21BN None
  1. aThe extract ID code defines the growth environment (Area#1–21, Fig. 1), habitat (B Bog or F forest) and organ (N needle). For example, 1FN is an extract prepared from needles collected in a forest habitat at location #1. Populations are listed in ascending order from coastal west (1) to inland east (21) with forest (F) and bog (B) populations next to one another for comparison
  2. bBioactivity was classified comparing a 96 h treatment in hyperglycemic (150 mM) serum-free media. Viable cell number following extract treatment was established using the WST-1 assay compared to standard curves of known cell number. Vehicle control was 0.1% DMSO. Extracts that at two or more concentrations increased viable cell number to values significantly higher than the normoglucose controls (> 100%) were classified as mitogenic, those which significantly protected cells from high glucose toxicity without apparent mitogenic activity were classified as cytoprotective, and those which enhanced glucotoxicity were classified as cytotoxic. Statistics were ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey tested vs. vehicle-treated cultures in normo- or high glucose media. All concentration-response data and statistical analyses are presented in Additional file 1: Figure S1