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Table 1 Effects of esculeoside A on the biochemical parameters and liver index of db/db mice

From: Hypoglycemic effects of esculeoside A are mediated via activation of AMPK and upregulation of IRS-1

Item Db/dm mice Untreated db/db mice Treated db/db mice
Serum
 TC (mmol/L) 3.32 ± 0.22 7.05 ± 0.38a 6.86 ± 0.87a
 TG (mmol/L) 0.96 ± 0.08 1.26 ± 0.19a 1.20 ± 0.25a
 INS (mIU/L) 9.0 ± 0.9 70.1 ± 9.5a 64.2 ± 12.1a
 ALT (U/L) 24.3 ± 1.9 59.2 ± 4.8a 61.3 ± 7.2a
 AST (U/L) 49.5 ± 3.1 88.8 ± 7.2a 81.5 ± 9.8a
 TNF-α (ng/L) 95.3 ± 9.8 390.6 ± 23.8a 355.1 ± 19.5b
 IL-6 (ng/L) 33.5 ± 3.6 150.5 ± 14.8a 123.8 ± 19.2a
 IL-1β (ng/L) 6.5 ± 0.7 11.8 ± 1.5a 8.5 ± 1.9a
Liver
 Liver index (mg/g) 49.58 ± 1.14 57.25 ± 1.57a 50.98 ± 1.98b
 TC (mg/mg prot) 0.16 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.04a 0.33 ± 0.05a
 TG (mg//mg prot) 1.67 ± 0.25 5.68 ± 0.61a 5.46 ± 0.92a
 TNF-α (pg/mg prot) 2.38 ± 0.35 4.71 ± 0.49a 2.96 ± 0.28b
 IL-6 (pg/mg prot) 3.12 ± 0.35 12.15 ± 0.78a 10.96 ± 1.02a
 IL-1β (pg/mg prot) 0.77 ± 0.09 2.07 ± 0.22a 1.68 ± 0.21a
 SOD (U/mg prot) 4.61 ± 0.39 4.35 ± 0.42 4.26 ± 0.48
 MDA(nmol/mg prot) 2.67 ± 0.31 4.32 ± 0.35a 3.11 ± 0.31b
  1. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 8 per group). Values having different superscripts are significantly different, P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test. aStatistical difference compared to the db/dm mice, bCompared to the untreated db/db mice