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Table 1 Stages of V. cholerae infection

From: Neutralization of cholera toxin by Rosaceae family plant extracts

Stage/Actiona Test methods Active plant extracts reference
1. Initial anchoring Anti-adherence
Aegle marmelos [10]
2. Stress induction Luminescent assay Several plant extracts, including Rosmarinus officinalis [11]
3. Bacteriostatic Various Various e.g. [10, 12,13,14]
4. Bacteriocidal
5. Quorum sensing Native bioluminescence Small molecule screen [15]
6. CTX expression and secretion rtPCR
ELISA of Cell free culture supernatant
Several plants
[16] [17]
7. CTX disassembly PAGE (−)-Epicatechin from Chiranthodendron pentadactylon [19]
8. CTX aggregation Centrifugation, PAGE Plant derived polyphenols [18]
9. Inhibition of GM1 binding GM 1 ELISA Screening of 297 Chinese herbs [19]
10. Intracellular trafficking Biotinlabeled CTX based assay Resveratrol - found in red grapes, berries and peanuts [20]
11. CTA inhibitor    
12. Channel blocker Patch clamp Mixture including agarwood and clove [21]
99. Tasteb Patient based apple [22]
  1. aThe stages can be grouped based on bacterial target (normal text), extracellular toxin target (bold) and human cell target (italics)
  2. bThe taste of ORT might be an important factor for the treatment of under-fives