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Table 4 Effect of the red wine phenolic extract (ProvinolsTM), rich in anthocyanins, and the oenological extract from grape seeds (Vitaflavan®) on the live/dead cell ratio (i.e. the area occupied by living cells divided by the area occupied by dead cells) of the whole biofilm obtained by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). PBS: phosphate buffer saline, DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide

From: Antimicrobial activity of red wine and oenological extracts against periodontal pathogens in a validated oral biofilm model

Exposure time Chemical treatment Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.a 95% Confidence Interval for Differencea
Lower Bound Upper Bound
30 s PBS 4% DMSO 0.250 0.256 1.000 -0.520 1.020
Wine extract 0.353 0.256 1.000 -0.416 1.123
Grape seeds extract -0.130 0.256 1.000 -0.900 0.640
4% DMSO PBS -0.250 0.256 1.000 -1.020 0.520
Wine extract 0.103 0.256 1.000 -0.666 0.873
Grape seeds extract -0.380 0.256 0.941 -1.150 0.390
Wine extract PBS -0.353 0.256 1.000 -1.123 0.416
4% DMSO -0.103 0.256 1.000 -0.873 0.666
Grape seeds extract -0.483 0.256 0.463 -1.253 0.286
Grape seeds extract PBS 0.130 0.256 1.000 -0.640 0.900
4% DMSO 0.380 0.256 0.941 -0.390 1.150
Wine extract 0.483 0.256 0.463 -0.286 1.253
1 min PBS 4% DMSO 0.030 0.256 1.000 -0.740 0.800
Wine extract -0.110 0.256 1.000 -0.880 0.660
Grape seeds extract -0.197 0.256 1.000 -0.966 0.573
4% DMSO PBS -0.030 0.256 1.000 -0.800 0.740
Wine extract -0.140 0.256 1.000 -0.910 0.630
Grape seeds extract -0.227 0.256 1.000 -0.996 0.543
Wine extract PBS 0.110 0.256 1.000 -0.660 0.880
4% DMSO 0.140 0.256 1.000 -0.630 0.910
Grape seeds extract -0.087 0.256 1.000 -0.856 0.683
Grape seeds extract PBS 0.197 0.256 1.000 -0.573 0.966
4% DMSO 0.227 0.256 1.000 -0.543 0.996
Wine extract 0.087 0.256 1.000 -0.683 0.856
  1. Based on estimated marginal means
  2. aAdjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni