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Table 3 Effect of the red wine phenolic extract (ProvinolsTM), rich in anthocyanins, and the oenological extract from grape seeds (Vitaflavan®) on the number of viable bacteria in the in vitro multi-species biofilm [colony forming units, CFU mL-1, obtained by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD). PBS: phosphate buffer saline; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide

From: Antimicrobial activity of red wine and oenological extracts against periodontal pathogens in a validated oral biofilm model

  Exposure time Viable CFU mL-1 [mean (SD)] in the biofilm
Treatment with PBS Treatment with the corresponding antimicrobial agent
Wine extract Grape seeds extract 4% DMSO
A. actinomycetemcomitans 30 s 7.2x106 (6.4x106) 5.8x106 (3.8x106) 5.2x106 (5.2x106) 5.6x106 (3.0x106)
1 min 5.2x106 (3.7x106) 5.0x106 (5.8x106) 2.4x106 (1.2x106) 5.2x106 (4.9x106)
P. gingivalis 30 s 1.7x106 (7.0x105) 1.8x106 (1.5x106) 1.3x106 (1.5x106) 1.6x106 (1.8x106)
1 min 8.9x105 (6.8x105) 5.0x105 (2.6x105) 8.5x105 (4.7x105) 1.0x106 (7.0x105)
F. nucleatum 30 s 3.8x105 (3.1x105) 1.0x105 (4.6x104)* 1.1x105 (9.2x104)* 3.5x105 (1.3x105)
1 min 1.5x105 (1.0x105) 3.3x104 (2.7x104) 5.4x104 (4.2x104) 1.8x105 (1.5x105)
Total bacteria 30 s 3.6x107 (2.3x107) 2.5x107 (1.5x107) 1.9x107 (1.7x107) 1.9x107 (1.9x107)
1 min 1.3x107 (1.1x107) 5.5x106 (4.7x106) 5.6x106 (3.4x106) 1.1x107 (6.2x106)
  1. *p < 0.05, significant differences when compared viable CFU mL-1 to control biofilms (exposed to PBS)
  2. p < 0.05, significant differences when comparing exposure times for an antimicrobial agent