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Table 2 Effect of red wine and dealcoholized red wine on the live/dead cell ratio (i.e. the area occupied by living cells divided by the area occupied by dead cells) of the whole biofilm obtained by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). PBS: phosphate buffer saline, EtOH: ethanol

From: Antimicrobial activity of red wine and oenological extracts against periodontal pathogens in a validated oral biofilm model

Exposure time Chemical treatment Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.b 95% Confidence Interval for Differenceb
Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 min PBS 12% EtOH 0.727 0.208 0.018a 0.101 1.352
Red wine 1.300 0.208 0.000a 0.674 1.926
Dealcoholized wine 1.197 0.208 0.000a 0.571 1.822
12% EtOH PBS -0.727 0.208 0.018a -1.352 -0.101
Red wine 0.573 0.208 0.084 -0.052 1.199
Dealcoholized wine 0.470 0.208 0.229 -0.156 1.096
Red wine PBS -1.300 0.208 0.000a -1.926 -0.674
12% EtOH -0.573 0.208 0.084 -1.199 0.052
Dealcoholized wine -0.103 0.208 1.000 -0.729 0.522
Dealcoholized wine PBS -1.197 0.208 0.000a -1.822 -0.571
12% EtOH -0.470 0.208 0.229 -1.096 0.156
Red wine 0.103 0.208 1.000 -0.522 0.729
5 min PBS 12% EtOH 0.177 0.208 1.000 -0.449 0.802
Red wine 0.577 0.208 0.082 -0.049 1.202
Dealcoholized wine 0.593 0.208 0.069 -0.032 1.219
12% EtOH PBS -0.177 0.208 1.000 -0.802 0.449
Red wine 0.400 0.208 0.435 -0.226 1.026
Dealcoholized wine 0.417 0.208 0.374 -0.209 1.042
Red wine PBS -0.577 0.208 0.082 -1.202 0.049
12% EtOH -0.400 0.208 0.435 -1.026 0.226
dealcoholized wine 0.017 0.208 1.000 -0.609 0.642
Dealcoholized wine PBS -0.593 0.208 0.069 -1.219 0.032
12% EtOH -0.417 0.208 0.374 -1.042 0.209
Red wine -0.017 0.208 1.000 -0.642 0.609
  1. Based on estimated marginal means
  2. aThe mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level
  3. bAdjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni