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Table 1 Effect of red wine and dealcoholized red wine on the number of viable bacteria in the in vitro multi-species biofilm [colony forming units, CFU mL− 1, obtained by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). PBS: phosphate buffer saline, EtOH: ethanol

From: Antimicrobial activity of red wine and oenological extracts against periodontal pathogens in a validated oral biofilm model

  Exposure time (min) Viable CFU mL-1 [mean (SD)] in the biofilm
Treatment with PBS Treatment with the corresponding antimicrobial agent
Red wine Dealcoholized red wine 12% EtOH
A. actinomycetemcomitans 1 1.9x106 (7.6x105) 1.8x106 (6.5x105) 1.9x106 (1.2x106) 8.9x105 (5.6x105)
5 2.0x106 (2.0x106) 7.7x105 (5.1x105)*† 5.1x105 (4.5x105)*† 1.1x106 (8.6x105)
P. gingivalis 1 1.5x105 (1.3x105) 3.4x104 (3.5x104)* 5.9x104 (5.1x104) 1.2x105 (1.4x105)
5 4.2x104 (3.3x104) 5.2x103 (3.2x103) 5.3x103 (5.6x103) 3.9x104 (1.4x104)
F. nucleatum 1 1.4x105 (7.1x104) 1.1x105 (9.1x104) 1.2x105 (1.0x105) 8.1x104 (8.5x104)
5 9.2x104 (9.5x104) 3.4x104 (3.1x104) 1.9x104 (1.6x104) 6.5x104 (5.6x104)
Total bacteria 1 8.2x106 (4.2x106) 3.7x106 (2.7x106) 3.3x106 (2.7x106) 5.9x106 (7.9x106)
5 7.2x106 (3.1x106) 3.9x106 (7.2x106) 4.0x106 (3.1x106) 3.0x106 (1.9x106)
  1. *p < 0.05, significant differences when compared viable CFU mL-1 to control biofilms (exposed to PBS)
  2. p < 0.05, significant differences when comparing exposure times for an antimicrobial agent