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Fig. 5 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 5

From: Antinociceptive activity of petroleum ether fraction obtained from methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves involves the activation of opioid receptors and NO-mediated/cGMP-independent pathway

Fig. 5

Effects of l–arg (a) or ODQ (b) on PECN-induced antinocicpetive activity assessed using the acetic acid–induced abdominal constriction test in mice. Animals were treated with PECN (500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (10 mL/kg, p.o.) 60 min before acetic acid (0.6%, 10 mL/kg, i.p.) treatment. l–arg (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or ODQ (2 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 5 min before PECN (500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (10 mL/kg, p.o.). Each column represents the mean ± SEM of six mice. Statistical analyses were performed using one–way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001 compared to control group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, and ###p < 0.001 compared to 500 mg/kg PECN–treated group

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