Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Different training durations and styles of tai chi for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials

Authors, year Location Participants, Duration of disease (years) No. Tai Chi group Control group Follow-up Outcome measures
Form or style Duration(min) Frequency
Zhang Y, 2008 China Women with T2DM (4.4) T: 10; C: 10 n.r. 60 min Five times weekly No treatment (free activity programme, n.r. in detail) 14 weeks (1) FBG; (2) TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG
Chen SC, 2010 Taiwan (China) Patients with T2DM (8.5/7.8) T: 56; C: 48 Chen-style 60 min Three times weekly Conventional exercise (aerobic exercise plus home-based exercise, 60 min, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks) 12 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG
Lam P, 2008 Australia Adults with T2DM (≥0.5) T: 28; C: 25 Yang- and Sun-style 20-form 60 min Two classes weekly No treatment (wait list) 24 weeks (1) HbA1c; (2) TC, TG
Youngwanichsetha S, 2013 Thailand Women with T2DM (2.62) TG:32; CG:32 18 movements (Lin’s style) 50 min Three times weekly Standard diabetes care (usual care, n.r. in detail) 12 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG; (2) BMI
Wang P, 2009 China Older adults with T2DM (> 1) TG:28; CG:26 Yang-style Tai Chi 30–50 min Five or seven times weekly Social dancing exercise (30–50 min every day for 24 weeks) 24 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG; (2) TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG
Zhao G, 2017 China Patients with T2DM (n.r.) T: 8; C: 8 Chen-style 60 min Seven times weekly Standard diabetes care (diet control and anti-diabetic medication, n.r. in detail) 16 weeks (1) FBG; (2) TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, BMI
Kan Y, 2004 China Patients with T2DM (> 3) T: 26; C: 22 24 movements (simplified version) 60 min Seven times weekly Walking or running (60 min every day for 12 weeks) 12 weeks (1) FBG; (2) TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, BMI
Wang JH, 2003 China Older adults with T2DM (> 2) T: 10; C: 6 24 movements (simplified version) 60 min Seven times weekly Standard diabetes care (usual medical care, n.r. in detail) 12 weeks (1) FBG; (2) TC, TG, BMI
Yan J, 2004 China Patients with T2DM (3.0/2.9) T: 10; C: 8 Da Yuan Jiang Tang-style 30–60 min Twice daily Standard diabetes care (diet control and anti-diabetic medication, n.r. in detail) 24 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG
Li XB, 2013 China Older adults with T2DM (3 months-10 years) T: 30; C: 30 n.r. 45 min Once daily Standard diabetes care (injection of insulin or anti-diabetic medication, n.r. in detail) 8 weeks (1) FBG
Wu F, 2010 China Patients with T2DM (1.35/1.36) T: 20; C: 20 24 movements (simplified version) 60 min Three times weekly Standard diabetes care (diet control and anti-diabetic medication, n.r. in detail) 24 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG
Wei DL, 2012 China Patients with T2DM (0.5–3) T: 26; C: 26 36 movements (Tai Chi Ball) 60 min Once daily Standard diabetes care (antidiabetic medication, n.r. in detail) 12 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG; (2) TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, BMI
Li HC, 2015 China Patients with T2DM (7.83/8.14) T: 50; C: 50 Chen-style 40–50 min Once daily Sham exercise (jogging, brisk walking, Yangko and other aerobic exercises), 40–50 min for 6 months 24 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG; (2) TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, BMI
TSANG T, 2008a Australia Adults with T2DM (8.7/12.4) T: 18; C: 20 Yang-style 60 min Twice weekly Sham exercise (calisthenics and gentle stretching) 16 weeks (1) HbA1c; (2) BMI
ORR R, 2006 Australia Older adults with T2DM (8.5/9.0) T: 17; C: 18 Sun-style and Yang-style 60 min Twice weekly Sham exercise (e.g., seated calisthenics, stretching) 16 weeks (1) FBG
Xiao L, 2010 China Patients with T2DM (1.35/1.36) T: 12; C: 12 24 movements (simplified version) 60 min Six times weekly Standard diabetes care (anti-diabetic medication, glipizide, n.r. in detail) 24 weeks (1) HbA1c, FBG
Xiao CM, 2015 China Older adults with DM T: 16; C: 16 Tai Chi Ball 1 to 2 h Three sessions per week No intervention 12 weeks (1) HbA1c
  1. Abbreviations: T Tai Chi, C control, FBG fasting blood glucose, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI body mass index, n.r not reported