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Table 2 Abbreviations and definitions used for this study

From: Manual therapy for the pediatric population: a systematic review

SMT (Spinal Manipulative Therapy) A procedure involving an high velocity, low amplitude (HVLA) thrust beyond the passive range of motion into the para-physiological space, but within the limits of anatomic integrity [71]p10, [72]p142–143, [73]. It is a bimanual motor skill involving various levels of interlimb coordination and postural control combined with a timely weight transfer and is characterized by a HVLA thrust that typically results in joint cavitation [74]. SMT is highly adaptive and context-dependent, meaning the amount of force delivered to the patient must take into account clinically relevant pathologies as well as anthropomorphic differences between the doctor and patient [73].The safe delivery of SMT requires consideration with respect to preload, speed of force production, peak amplitude of force delivered, duration of impulse/thrust delivered, doctor position, patient positioning, and line of drive (direction of thrust) [71, 74].
Mobilization A low velocity, low amplitude (LVLA) oscillation procedure, within the active or passive ranges of motion [71]p18, [72]p142.
OMT (Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy) Involves physical manipulation of various tissues and parts of the body that includes soft tissue massage and stretch, strain-counter-strain, articulation, high velocity thrust, gentle low amplitude mobilizations and neuromuscular techniques [49]p1–2. In some instances OMT is better classified as a mobilization [71]p18 .
CST (Cranial-Sacral Therapy) A group of manual procedures directed to the sutures of the skull designed to enhance the functioning of the membranes, tissues, fluids, and bones surrounding or associated with the brain and spinal cord. It is postulated that low-force pressure can influence the vitality of the Cranial Rhythmic Impulse created by the flow of cerebrospinal fluid as it moves from the ventricles of the skull to the sacrum within the spinal cord [71]p123–136.
CMT (Chiropractic Manipulative Therapy) Synonymous with SMT, but performed by a doctor of chiropractic.
VOMT (Visceral Osteopathic Manipulation) A manual therapy directed to various organs of the body to aid in smooth muscle function, influence somatic biomechanics and body fluid mechanics [49]p251–252.
Instrument-assisted manipulation The use of any number of different types of hand held instruments used to provide a manipulation-type force.
MT (Manual Therapy) Any of the above.