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Table 3 Pharmacokinetic parameters (PK) of warfarin alone (0.5 mg/kg) or in combination with the investigated natural products and their quality markers

From: Critical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-herb interactions in rats between warfarin and pomegranate peel or guava leaves extracts

PK Parameter Treatment
  WF (0.5 mg/kg) WF & PPE (100 mg/kg) WF & EA (40 mg/kg) WF & GvL (250 mg/kg) WF & Que. (12.75 mg/kg)
Cmax (ng/ml) 3670 ± 663 4218 ± 843 4981 ± 1363* 6962 ± 2358** 5428 ± 1110**
Tmax (h) 6 ± 8 3 ± 1.58 3 ± 1.58 11 ± 6 5 ± 4
AUC.inf (h*ng/ml) 106,613 ± 30,987 99,457 ± 43,116 131,661 ± 57,014 252,566 ± 51899** 115,904 ± 24,544
Kel (ml/h) 0.044 ± 0.01 0.035 ± 0.008 0.046 ± 0.01 0.044 ± 0.01 0.039 ± 0.006
t0.5 (h) 17 ± 4 21 ± 5 16 ± 4.6 17 ± 5 18 ± 3
MRT (h) 25 ± 5 25 ± 7.7 23 ± 6.5 30 ± 6 22 ± 6
CL/F (ml/h) 1.45 ± 0.5 1.54 ± 0.5 1.17 ± 0.4 0.61 ± 0.17** 1.14 ± 0.32
Vz/F (ml) 35 ± 15 45 ± 11.4 26 ± 6.8 15 ± 5** 30 ± 8
AUMC-inf.(h*h*ng/m) 2,760,227 ± 1,140,965 2,762,909 ± 2,177,721 3,363,635 ± 2,416,054 7,630,361 ± 1894405** 2,594,574 ± 1,058,762
%Change in Cmax 15 36* 90** 48**
%Change in AUC.inf − 7 23 137** 9
%Change in CL 6 −19 −58** −21
%Change in Vz 29 −26 −57** −14
  1. The data are presented as mean ± SD (n = 8). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01