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Table 4 Usages of alternative medicines

From: Use of alternative medicine, ginger and licorice among Danish pregnant women – a prospective cohort study

Name
Scientific name
Ethnomedical use Verified scientific use Use in Danish setting
Artichoke, in Boldocynara
Cynara scolymus
Loss of appetite, dyspeptic complains, and prophylactic against reemission of gallstones and as a tonic in convalescence [30] No data of clinical efficacya Against flatulencec
Boldo, in Boldocynara
Peumus boldus
Dyspeptic complaints [30] No data of clinical efficacya Against flatulencec
Brown Kelp, in Krauterblüt®
Macrocystis pyrifera
Weight reduction, against hypertension and anemia in pregnancy [30] No clinical data Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Caraway, in MK oil
Carum carvi
Gastrointestinal cramps, flatulence, feelings of fullness, improve lactation, an emmenagogue [30] Insufficient data of clinical efficacya Anti-ageing properties with vital vitamins, minerals and bioflavonoidsc
Cascarilla, in Krauterblüt®
Croton eluteria
Digestive disorders, diarrhea and vomiting [30] No clinical data Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Cranberry
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Against urinary tract irritation, gout, rheumatism and calculus [30] Mixed data of clinical efficacy [35] Prevention and treatment of lighter, recurrent urinary tract infectionsb
Dandelion, in Boldocynara
Taraxacum officinale
Acute mastitis, urinary disorders, chronic ulcers, tuberculosis, flatulence, colic, kidney disease, gout, jaundice and biliary stones [30] No data of clinical efficacya Against flatulencec
Evening primrose, in MK oil
Oenothera biennis
Neurodermatitis, premenstrual syndrome, dietary aid, high cholesterol levels, menopausal hot flashes, mastalgia and treatment of hyperactivity in children [30] Insufficient data of clinical efficacya Anti-ageing properties with vital vitamins, minerals and bioflavonoidsc
Fennel, in Krauterblüt®
Foeniculum vulgare
Peptic discomforts, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, feeling of fullness, flatulence and catarrh of the upper respiratory tract [30] Clinical data limited. Pharmacological data supports the use against mild spasmodic gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual cramps and expectorants in cough with coldsa Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Field Horsetail, in Krauterblüt®
Equisetum arvense
Tuberculosis, catarrh in the kidney and bladder regions, a hematostatic for profuse menstruation, nasal, pulmonary and gastric hemorrhages, rheumatic diseases, gout, poorly healing wounds, swelling, fractures, frostbite and loss of hair [30] Insufficient data of clinical efficacya Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Garden angelica, in Krauterblüt®
Angelica archangelica
Used against loss of appetite, dyspeptic and menstruation complaints, liver and biliary duct conditions, coughs and bronchitis [30] Insufficient data of clinical efficacy. However, coumarin-derivatives in Angelica archangelica are phototoxica Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Ginger
Zingiber officinale
Used as a carminative, expectorant, and astringent. To treat colds, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, dyspeptic symptoms and pharyngitis [30] Antiemetica No available data
Glucosamines Originally used in veterinary medicine Limited data Prevention and treatment of osteoarthritisc
Green tea
Camellia sinensis
Stomach disorders, nausea, migraine, symptoms of fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac and circulatory conditions, states of agitation, states of depression, pain, fever and fatigue [30] Stimulatory effecta (corroborated with the caffeine content) No available data
Hibiscus, in Krauterblüt®
Hibiscus sabdariffa
Diuretic, mild laxative, treatment of hypertension, pyrexia, cough, colds, malaria and skin inflammations [36] Insufficient data of antihypertensive efficacy [37] Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Kefir (fermented probiotic milk product) Limited data Limited data No available data
Kombucha tea Weight loss and anticancer properties [38] No clinical data No available data
Lactic Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria (fermented probiotic milk product) Introduced in the early twentieth century. To normalize the bacterial flora in the gut. Mixed data of clinical efficacy [39] Normalization of the intestinal florab
Licorice
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Sore throats, appendicitis, constipation, and to increase milk production and micturition [30] Insufficient data of clinical efficacya Mucous release effect for cough in shorter periodsb
Linseed, in MK oil
Linum usitatissimum
For coughs, bronchial conditions, urethritis, diarrhea and gonorrhea [30] Mixed data of clinical efficacy. However, effectiveness of treatment of habitual constipation and softening of stool is plausiblea Anti-ageing properties with vital vitamins, minerals and bioflavonoidsc
L-lysine Limited data Limited data  
Mint
Mentha piperita
Nausea, vomiting, morning sickness, respiratory infections, dysmenorrhea and colds [30] Symptomatic relief of digestive disordersa Indigestion and flatulenceb
Nettle, in Krauterblüt®
Urtica dioica
Hematogenic, rheumatic remedy, diuretic [30]. For diabetes, hypertension and prostate cancer [40] Insufficient data of clinical efficacya Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Oregano
Origanum vulgare
Colds, fever, cough, vomiting, dyspepsia painful menstruation, rheumatoid arthritis, urinary tract disorders, dysentery, jaundice and malnutrition for children [30] Limited data No available data
Physillium Husk Fibre
Plantago ovata
Against inflammation of the mucous membrane in the urogenital and gastrointestinal tract [30] Treatment of habitual constipation, desirable soft stool and adjuvant to diet in hypercholesterolemiaa Against constipation, diarrhea, to increase fiber intake and adjuvant to diet in hypercholesteremiab
Quackgrass, in Krauterblüt®
Agropyron repens
Urinary tract infections [30] No data of clinical efficacya Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Raspberry leavesRubus idaeus Relieve nausea and induce labour [30] Insufficient data of clinical efficacya No available data
Rosehip, in MK oilRosa rugosa Disorders in the efferent urinary tract, the kidneys, kidney stones, rheumatic conditions, gout, colds, scurvy, febrile conditions [30] Limited data Anti-ageing properties with vital vitamins, minerals and bioflavonoidsc
Spinach, in Krauterblüt®
Spinacia oleracea
Ailments of the gastrointestinal tract and blood generating [30] Limited data Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Thyme
Thymus vulgaris
Catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, asthma, laryngitis, cough, gastritis and dyspepsia [30] No data of clinical efficacya Expectorate by productive cough in combination with Primula verisb
Turmeric
Curcuma longa
Dyspeptic disorders and inflammations [30] No data of clinical efficacya No available data
Yarrow, in Krauterblüt®
Achillea millefolium
Laxative and treatments against bleeding hemorrhoids, menstrual complaints and gynecological agents [30] No data of clinical efficacya Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
Wormwood, in Krauterblüt®
Artemisia absinthium
Ailments of gastrointestinal tract, liver disorders, bloating, anemia, irregular menstruation, intermittent fever, loss of appetite and worm infestation [30] No data of clinical efficacya Ensure a good supply of iron, riboflavin, pyridoxines, cobalamin and vitamin Cc
  1. aAccording to scientific rapports by European Medicines Agency (EMA)
  2. bApproved by the Danish Medicines Agency
  3. Please note that in a Danish context an herbal remedy can only be sold if approved by the authorities. However, this approval does not demand any scientific evidence and all though the remedies can only be advertised according to their approval they are sold freely and may be used for other purposes
  4. cNot approved as an herbal remedy. Therefore, stating manufacturers own clarification of remedy on the Danish market
  5. Overview of the common ethnomedical indications and possible scientific verified use concerning the reported use of alternative medicines and their potential indication for use in a Danish setting