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Table 6 Effects of administration of propolis on placental oxidative stress markers of pregnant streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

From: Propolis improves pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Groups Malonaldehyde (nmol/mg protein) Protein carbonyl (nmol/mg protein) Total antioxidant capacity (nmol/mg protein)
Non-DM 0.844 (0.173) 1.196 (0.039) 0.393 (0.046)
DM 3.322 (0.442)a 3.510 (0.331)a 0.158 (0.029)a
DM + Propolis 1.147 (0.456)b 2.087 (0.339)a, b 0.249 (0.028)a, b
DM + Insulin 1.116 (0.220)b 2.496 (0.428)a, b 0.215 (0.018)a, b
DM + Combined 1.026 (0.338)b 1.967 (0.371)a,b,c 0.295 (0.040)a,b,d
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation), (n = 8 per group). DM: diabetes mellitus, Combined: Propolis and insulin, FBG: fasting blood glucose. aP < 0.05 compared with non-DM group; bP < 0.05 compared with DM group; cP < 0.05 compared with DM + Propolis group, dP < 0.05 compared with DM + Insulin group (ANOVA followed by Turkey-Kramer post-hoc test)