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Table 3 Effects of administration of propolis on implantation loss and number of foetus of pregnant streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

From: Propolis improves pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Groups Pre-implantation Loss (%) Post-implantation Loss (%) Number of foetus (n)
Non-DM 9.82 (7.80) 8.85 (5.78) 12.50 (1.69)
DM 38.69 (18.93)a 42.14 (21.55)a 5.25 (2.82)a
DM + Propolis 21.44 (12.53) 11.50 (7.82)b 9.75 (2.61)b
DM + Insulin 19.87 (7.52)b 14.45 (16.05)b 9.13 (1.81)b
DM + Combined 19.88 (10.36)b 14.57 (17.38)b 9.13 (3.87)b
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation), (n = 8 per group). DM: diabetes mellitus, Combined: Propolis and insulin. aP < 0.05 compared with non-DM group, bP < 0.05 compared with DM group (ANOVA followed by Turkey-Kramer post-hoc test)