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Table 1 Minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) of Terminalia bellirica fruit extracts obtained by different extraction methods, against 16 MDR strains (from clinical isolates), 1 ATCC MDR strain and 3 ATCC susceptible strains

From: Terminalia bellirica fruit extracts: in-vitro antibacterial activity against selected multidrug-resistant bacteria, radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity study on BHK-21 cells

Microorganisma Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in mg/mL
Direct aqueous extracts Sequential extracts
Reflux method Bottle- shaker method Sonication method Soxhlet method Bottle-shaker method Sonication method
DCMb Methanol Aqueous DCM Methanol Aqueous DCM Methanol Aqueous
1 0.5 0.5 0.5 NAc 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
2 0.5 0.5 0.5 NA 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
3 0.25 0.5 0.25 NA 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
4 0.25 0.5 0.25 NA 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
5 0.25 0.5 0.25 NA 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
6 0.25 0.5 0.25 NA 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
7 0.25 0.5 0.25 NA 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
8 0.25 0.5 0.5 NA 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5 NA 0.5 0.5
9 >  5 >  5 >  5 NA >  5 4 NA >  5 4 NA >  5 4
10 >  5 >  5 >  5 NA >  5 4 NA >  5 4 NA >  5 4
11 0.5 1 1 NA 0.5 1 NA 1 1 NA 1 1
12 0.5 1 0.5 NA 0.5 1 NA 1 1 NA 1 1
13 >  5 >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5
14 >  5 >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5
15 0.5 4 1 NA 1 2 NA 4 2 NA 4 2
16 0.5 4 1 NA 0.5 1 NA 1 1 NA 1 1
17 0.25 0.25 0.5 NA 0.5 1 NA 1 1 NA 1 1
18 0.25 0.25 0.25 NA 0.5 1 NA 1 1 NA 1 1
19 >  5 >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5
20 >  5 >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5 NA >  5 >  5
  1. aMicroorganisms: 1–8 – MRSA; 9,10 - ESBL producing E. coli; 11,12 - MDR Acinetobacter spp.; 13,14 - MDR K. pneumoniae; 15,16 - MDR P. aeruginosa;17,18 - S. aureus ATCC 25923 and NCTC 6571; 19 - E. coli ATCC 25922; 20 - ESBL producing K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603
  2. bDCM dichloromethane
  3. cNA Not applicable