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Table 2 Effects of treatment with RA and SA by all participants, subgroup A, and subgroup B

From: Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for functional constipation: a randomised, sham-controlled pilot trial

    Baseline Post-treatmenta Mean change MD (95% CI), Hedge’s g Follow-upb Mean change MD (95% CI), Hedge’s g
DF (freq/wk) Total RA (n = 14) 5.86 ± 5.62 5.43 ± 3.39 −0.43 ± 4.09 −1.70 (− 3.94, 0.55), 5.79 ± 3.64 − 0.07 ± 4.16 −1.74 (− 4.13, 0.66),
SA (n = 15) 3.73 ± 1.62 5.00 ± 1.77 1.27 ± 1.10 0.56 5.40 ± 1.96 1.67 ± 1.72 0.53
Subgroup A RA (n = 5) 7.60 ± 9.40 6.60 ± 4.34 −1.00 ± 5.66 −1.75 (− 8.61, 5.11), 7.80 ± 4.66 0.20 ± 5.76 −0.30 (−7.34, 6.74),
SA (n = 4) 4.00 ± 2.71 4.75 ± 2.36 0.75 ± 0.96 0.36 4.50 ± 1.73 0.50 ± 1.29 0.06
Subgroup B RA (n = 9) 7.00 ± 6.80 5.89 ± 3.86 −1.11 ± 4.94 −2.86 (−6.67, 0.94) 6.67 ± 4.09 −0.33 ± 5.12 −2.58 (− 6.70, 1.54),
SA (n = 8) 3.25 ± 0.71 5.00 ± 1.51 1.75 ± 1.04 0.74 5.50 ± 2.27 2.25 ± 1.98 0.62
SCBM (freq/wk) Total RA (n = 14) 0.71 ± 1.20 3.21 ± 3.83 2.50 ± 3.86 0.17 (−2.37, 2.70), 3.43 ± 4.05 2.71 ± 4.01 0.78 (−1.67, 3.24),
SA (n = 15) 1.13 ± 1.51 3.47 ± 2.45 2.33 ± 2.74 0.05 3.07 ± 2.19 1.93 ± 2.25 0.23
Subgroup A RA (n = 5) 0.60 ± 0.89 4.60 ± 5.18 4.00 ± 5.43 3.75 (−2.78, 10.28), 6.00 ± 5.43 5.40 ± 5.37 4.90 (1.56, 11.36),
SA (n = 4) 2.00 ± 2.71 2.25 ± 2.63 0.25 ± 0.50 0.81 2.50 ± 2.52 0.50 ± 0.58 1.07
Subgroup B RA (n = 9) 0.56 ± 0.88 3.22 ± 4.41 2.67 ± 4.33 −0.21 (−3.88, 3.47), 3.44 ± 4.90 2.89 ± 4.83 0.76 (−3.29, 4.82),
SA (n = 8) 0.63 ± 0.52 3.50 ± 2.07 2.88 ± 2.36 0.06 2.75 ± 2.31 2.13 ± 2.47 0.18
BSS Total RA (n = 14) 3.60 ± 1.09 4.17 ± 1.48 0.57 ± 1.72 0.42 (−0.66, 1.50), 4.69 ± 0.82 1.09 ± 1.30 0.95 (0.11, 1.79),
SA (n = 15) 3.32 ± 1.38 3.47 ± 1.33 0.15 ± 1.06 0.29 3.46 ± 1.19 0.14 ± 0.88 0.84
Subgroup A RA (n = 5) 2.71 ± 0.64 4.68 ± 1.09 1.97 ± 1.23 1.06 (−0.64, 2.77), 4.60 ± 0.23 1.89 ± 0.51 1.19 (0.34, 2.03),
SA (n = 4) 1.46 ± 0.42 2.36 ± 1.08 0.91 ± 0.82 0.87 2.16 ± 0.90 0.70 ± 0.56 2.00
Subgroup B RA (n = 9) 3.31 ± 1.12 4.08 ± 1.80 0.78 ± 2.11 0.96 (−0.89, 2.82) 5.01 ± 0.81 1.70 ± 1.10 1.91 (0.84, 2.98),
SA (n = 8) 3.96 ± 1.31 3.77 ± 1.43 −0.19 ± 1.35 0.51 3.75 ± 1.15 −0.21 ± 0.95 1.76
CAS Total RA (n = 14) 7.93 ± 4.01 4.71 ± 3.73 −3.21 ± 2.91 −0.55 (−2.73, 1.64), 4.43 ± 3.98 −3.50 ± 3.98 −0.63 (−3.29, 2.02),
SA (n = 15) 7.27 ± 3.01 4.60 ± 2.41 −2.67 + ±2.82 0.18 4.40 ± 2.85 −2.87 ± 2.95 0.17
Subgroup A RA (n = 5) 10.40 ± 1.82 5.40 ± 1.82 −5.00 ± 3.16 −3.50 (−8.90, 1.90), 4.20 ± 2.86 −6.20 ± 4.15 −4.70 (−11.10, 1.70),
SA (n = 4) 6.25 ± 2.63 4.75 ± 1.50 −1.50 ± 3.70 0.92 4.75 ± 1.71 −1.50 ± 3.87 1.04
Subgroup B RA (n = 9) 10.56 ± 2.01 6.33 ± 3.67 −4.22 ± 3.03 −0.22 (−3.22, 2.77), 5.56 ± 4.36 −5.00 ± 3.84 −1.00 (− 4.71, 2.71),
SA (n = 8) 9.63 ± 1.85 5.63 ± 2.00 −4.00 ± 2.73 0.08 5.63 ± 2.77 −4.00 ± 3.25 0.27
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation, mean difference (95% CI), or Hedge’s g.DF, defecation frequency
  2. SCBM spontaneous complete bowel movement, BSS Bristol stool scale, CAS constipation assessment scale, Subgroup A participants whose proportion of hard stool (BSS type 1–2) > 25% of total defecation, Subgroup B participants whose CAS score ≥ 7, RA real acupuncture, SA sham acupuncture
  3. aweek 5
  4. bweek 9