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Table 1 Baseline demographic and general characteristics

From: Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for functional constipation: a randomised, sham-controlled pilot trial

  RA SA p-value
Demographic characteristics
 Female 12 (85.7) 14 (91.7) 0.5977a
 Age(years) 49.6 ± 12.7 50.0 ± 10.5 0.9348b
 Height(cm) 159.2 ± 8.0 158.3 ± 5.8 0.7486b
 Weight(kg) 61.5 ± 12.2 59.3 ± 9.6 0.5893b
 BMI 21.1 ± 2.7 23.6 ± 3.1 0.6767b
Breakfast(times/week)
  ≥ 5 5 (35.7) 10 (66.7) 0.2601a
 3–4 6 (42.9) 4 (26.7)  
 0–2 3 (21.4) 1 (6.7)  
Mealtime
 Regular 2 (14.3) 7 (46.7) 0.1086a
 Irregular 12 (85.7) 8 (53.3)  
Whole-grain intake 3 (21.4) 2 (13.3) 0.6513a
Exercise 7 (50.0) 11 (73.3) 0.1956c
Smoking 2 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 0.2241a
Drinking 4 (28.6) 3 (20.0) 0.6817a
Past medication use 1 (7.1) 5 (33.3) 0.1686a
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation or frequency(%)
  2. RA real acupuncture, SA sham acupuncture, BMI body mass index
  3. aFisher’s exact test
  4. bindependent two-sample t-test
  5. cChi-square test