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Table 2 The observed and expected values of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the combined extract

From: In vitro evaluation of the synergistic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the combined extracts from Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum and Egyptian Chlorella vulgaris

In vitro antioxidant models
   TAC
(mg Asc eq/ g extract)
Effect NO scavenging activity
(IC50, μg/mL)
Effect DPPH scavenging activity
(IC50, μg/mL)
Effect Reducing power
(IC50, μg/mL)
Effect Superoxide scavenging activity
(IC50, μg/mL)
Effect
GLE-CVE OV 301.00 ± 1.00 a Sy 46.12 ± 2.92 a Sy 29.48 ± 1.45 a Sy 103.47 ± 2.04 a An 30.01 ± 3.45 a Sy
EV 38.83 ± 2.16b 1111.02 ± 128.75b 169.29 ± 9.36b 71.98 ± 1.99b   660.73 ± 14.92b
  Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50, μg/mL) Effect Anti-Lipid peroxidation activity
(IC50, μg/mL)
Effect
OV 131.6 ± 5.42 a Sy 54.15 ± 2.45 a Ad
EV 213.18 ± 2.13b 51.49 ± 0.96a
Inflammatory mediators
   NO
(nmol/mL)
Effect iNOS
(Expression)
Effect COX-2
(Expression)
Effect NF-кB
(Expression)
Effect TNF-α
(mmol/mL)
Effect
GLE-CVE OV 39.26 ± 4.37 a Sy 0.146 ± 0.006 a Sy 0.056 ± 0.001 a Sy 0.49 ± 0.015 a Sy 242.88 ± 18.5 a Sy
EV 52.08 ± 1.08b 1.29 ± 0.29b 0.18 ± 0.002b 0.85 ± 0.038b 422.04 ± 2.65b
Oxidative stress parameters
   Lipid peroxidation
(nmoL/mL)
Effect GSH
(nmoL/mL)
Effect Superoxide dismutase (SOD, IU/mg protein) Effect Glutathione peroxidase (GPX, IU/mg protein) Effect Glutathione reductase (GR, IU/mg protein) Effect
GLE-CVE OV 7.29 ± 0.84 a Sy 0.59 ± 0.01 a Sy 0.66 ± 0.0002 a Sy 0.07 ± 0.001 a Sy 3.25 ± 0.06 a Ad
EV 59.58 ± 1.62b 0.48 ± 0.0002b 0.63 ± 0.002b 0.06 ± 0.0001b 3.19 ± 0.02a
  1. Data are expressed as Mean ± S.E. GLE-CVE; combined extractof Malaysian Ganodermalucidum and Egyptian Chlorella vulgaris extracts, OV; observed value, EV; expected value, Sy; synergistic effect, Ad; additive effect, An; antagonistic effect. Different letters between each OV and EV within the same column are significantly different at p < 0.05