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Table 2 Associations between exposure to Mwanamphepo during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes (Mixed-effects model, adjusted for clustering)

From: Associations between the use of herbal medicines and adverse pregnancy outcomes in rural Malawi: a secondary analysis of randomised controlled trial data

Outcome measures Total n (%) Non-exposed n (%) Exposed n (%) COR (95% CI) p-value aAOR (95% CI) p-value
Maternal morbidity
 No (Rc) 6100 (74.2%) 4665 (76.4%) 1435 (67.9%)   
 Yes 2119 (25.8%) 1441 (23.6%) 678 (32.1%) 1.21 (1.05–1.38) 0.006 1.28 (1.09–1.50) 0.002
Neonatal death or morbidity
 No (Rc) 3538 (43.1%) 2795 (45.8%) 744 (35.2%)   
 Yes 4680 (56.9%) 3311 (54.2%) 1369 (64.8%) 1.30 (1.16–1.46) < 0.001 1.22 (1.06–1.40) 0.006
  1. COR Crude odds ratio, AOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, Rc Reference category
  2. aAdjusted for attendance of antenatal clinic, attendance of postnatal clinic, place of delivery, number of antenatal visits, timing of the first antenatal visit (gestational age), age, marital status, tribe, occupation, wealth tertiles and religion