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Table 3 Results of subgroup analysis by treatment duration, frequency, and specific acupoints

From: Optimizing acupuncture treatment for dry eye syndrome: a systematic review

Variables Number of studies Number of eyes SMD 95%CI Heterogeneity (I2) MD (95% CI)
Acupuncture AT
Duration Short term 7 586 488 0.54 0.30–0.78 86% −0.41 (−1.10, 0.28)
Long term 4 148 106 0.95 0.30–1.59 87%
Frequency Less frequent 4 250 208 0.49 0.19–0.79 79% −0.22 (−0.67, 0.22)
Intensive 7 484 386 0.71 0.37–1.05 90%
BL1 Included 4 270 214 0.60 0.29–0.91 81% −0.04 (−0.49, 0.41)
Not included 7 464 380 0.64 0.32–.0.96 89%
BL2a Included 4 264 264 0.35 0.11–0.60 71% −0.46 (− 0.86, − 0.06)
Not included 8 470 360 0.81 0.49–1.12 89%
ST1a Included 5 330 336 0.28 0.01–0.52 77% −0.63 (−1.02, − 0.24)
Not included 7 404 288 0.91 0.60–1.22 85%
ST2 Included 4 148 106 0.95 0.30–1.59 91% 0.41 (−0.28, 1.10)
Not included 7 586 488 0.54 0.30–0.78 86%
TE23a Included 6 354 348 0.59 0.25–0.96 88% −0.10 (− 0.55, 0.35)
Not included 6 380 276 0.69 0.40–0.99 87%
Ex-HN5 Included 6 398 350 0.60 0.27–0.93 88% −0.03 (−0.56, 0.50)
Not included 5 336 244 0.63 0.30–0.96 86%
  1. aWang et al. [15] study consists of two different acupuncture group. One group included BL2, ST1, TE23 and the other did not. For the reason, number of studies and number of eyes of AT group was double-counted